## Report heat of fusion will be measured by

ReportAMeasuringthe specific latent heat of fusion.

AhmedRaja17/12/2017 Introduction:Thisexperiment is used to hypothesize the Latent Heat of Fusion of Ice. The heat offusion will be measured by pouring ice in hot water and measuring temperature change.To change water from solid to a liquid a certain amount of energy is required.In this experiment, the amount of latent heat of fusion required will bemeasured. The data collected from this experiment can be used to extract thelatent heat of fusion of ice. Prediction:Theenergy gained by the ice is going to be equal to the energy lost by the water.

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Background Information:1.1,1.2,1.3.

Weoften assume that radiation infrared specifically is heat, but what exactly isheat. Heat is a measurement of energy, it often gets confused with temperature,it is the measure of mean kinetic energy of an atom or molecule.Temperatureis measured in different units like for example kelvin and Celsius, Kelvin wasmade by Lord Kelvin, he developed it in 1848 in Scotland, his scales comprisesof using molecular energy to define the extremes of cold and hot.

Absolute zeroor 0K corresponds the point in the scale where the molecular energy is at aminimum. The kelvin scale is specifically used in scientific work whereas theCelsius scale is commonly used. The Celsius scale was developed in 1742 byAnders Celsius in Sweden. It uses the melting and boiling points of water undernormal atmospheric conditions as base.

100°C is 373.15 K, to convert from Celsius to kelvin we add 273.15 and vice versafor Kelvin to Celsius.Thetemperature measuring device I decided to use was a digital thermometer as itwould give me an accurate reading for my results in the experiments.2.1Wewill observe water change its state from solid to liquid, we will use ice inthe experiment, ice will be heated which will melt it; melting is a processthat causes a substance to change forms from solid to liquid, the radiationprovided by the warm water will increase the kinetic energy of the molecules ofice.

The molecules will speed up enough that their motion will overcome theforces of attraction so that the molecules can move past each other as aliquid.2.2Inthe experiment, the focus is to learn the latent heat of fusion and evaporationand specific heat capacity. Latent heat is the amount of energy absorbed orexhaled out by a substance when it goes from a state of matter to a differentone.Whena substance goes to a liquid from a solid the latent heat exhaled is the latentheat of fusion, it is the heat needed to change the mass of a substance of 1kgfrom solid to liquid.

Energy(J)= SpecificLatent heat (J/kg) x mass (kg) -> formula can be rearranged to find SLH likethis:Specific Latent Heat(J/kg) = mass(kg)/Energy(J). 3.1Conduction:Theprocess of thermal energy or heat transferring from one place to another iscalled conduction. Conduction is only possible in a material if it has freeelectrons. Metals are specific elements that are said to be good conductors ofheat and electricity as they contain free electrons whereas non-metals do not. Convection:Theprocess of transfer of heat energy by liquids and gases is called convection.It occurs when the high energy particles take place of the particles with lessenergy, this is how heat is transferred from warm places to cold ones. Radiation:Thetransfer of heat in electromagnetic waves is called radiation, radiation isemitted by a body as its molecules lose kinetic energy in the form of heat.

Asubstances surface also plays a major role in deciding whether it can handleradiation well or not. A dull and rough surface is poor at reflection radiationwhile its good at absorbing and a shiny surface is completely opposite which isgood at reflecting and bad at absorbing. Results: Mass of Cup (g) Mass of Cup and Water(g) Mass of Water(g) Mass of cup and water and ice(g) Mass of ice (g) Temp of water (D-Celsius/ Kelvin) Temp of water and melting ice (D-Celsius/ Kelvin) Difference in Temp (D-Celsius/ Kelvin) 2.

53 100.1 97.57 115.9 15.8 36.4/309.55 19.

6/292.75 16.8/289.95 2.53 100.1 97.

57 116.3 16.2 37.7/310.85 21.

9/295.05 15.8/288.95 2.53 100.

1 97.57 116.8 16.7 35.7/308.

85 20.1/293.25 15.6/288.75   1.    97.57/1000= 0.09757Use Energy = Mass(kg) x HeatCapacity(J/kg) x Change in Temperature(d-Celsius/Kelvin).

0.09757 x 4200 x 16.8 =6884.5392 J/kgNow I will use Energy =mass of substance x Latent Heat of Fusion and rearrange itLatent Heat of Fusion = Energy/Mass6884.5392/0.0158 =435730.3291 J/kg 2.     97.

57/1000=0.097570.09757x 4200 x 15.8= 6474.7452 J/kgLatent heat of fusion =energy/ mass6474.7452/0.

0162 =399675.6296 J/kg 3.     97.57/1000= 0.097570.

09757x 4200 x 15.6 = 6392.7864 J/kgLatentheat of fusion = energy/ mass6392.7864/0.0167=382801.

5808 J/kg Average:435730.3291+399675.6296+382801.

5808/3= 406069.1798 J/kgConvertingto grams:406069.1798/1000= 406.069179 J/g  Conclusion:Basedon our hypothesis at the start it can be concluded that there is a latent heatwithin ice and it has been worked out to be 406.069179 J/g compared to theactual value which is 334 J/g there is a deviation by 21%, the cause ofdeviation could be the choice of instruments as we could have used aninstrument that can measure to a higher degree of measurement or the method weused involved significant random errors.

Evaluation: Themethod used can be held back by limitations e.g. ice melting at roomtemperature, water temperature fluctuating, thermometer started at wrongreading, mass of ice not calculated properly and ice not completely melting inthe cup, these are some of the human errors we could come across, heat lossthrough the cup over time is also a major factor as we were not in a controlledenvironment.Inthe experiment, there were no anomalous results and all the calculationsfollowed a pattern, the results could be said to be reliable as there wererepeats, and averages taken at the end. Improvements would be more repeatstaken by a different group and comparing results.

Bibliography: 1.Latent Heat ofVapourisation and Fusion. 2018. Latent Heat of Vapourisation and Fusion.ONLINE Available at: http://www.

splung.com/content/sid/6/page/latentheat.Accessed 21 January 2018. 2.

Latent heat – Wikipedia.2018. Latent heat – Wikipedia. ONLINE Availableat: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latent_heat.Accessed 21 January 2018                                        Report BMeasuring the specific heat capacity of some metalsAhmed Raja18/12/2017 Introduction:Thevalue of the specific thermal capacity of a material tells us how much energyis needed to change the temperature of one kilogram of the material by 1degree.

It is an important measurementfor engineers and physicists who work with any material that changes itstemperature or is designed to retain thermal energy.  Inthis activity, a value for specific thermal capacity will be calculated andconsider some of the uncertainties in the measurements that will be made duringthe experiment. Hypothesis:Sinceall metals have different densities and makeups I think that the heat capacitywill greatly vary.

The makeup of iron is very different than aluminium, so theheat capacity will be quite different. Also, a lot of metals are not completelypure and that will also have some effect on the heat capacity Background Information: 3.2Inthe specific heat capacity  experiment theheat transfer changed from one to another according to each form of matter in asequential order, as the Bunsen burner was ignited it supplied heat in the formof radiation to the gauze, the gauze being a metal supplied it to the beakerthrough conduction this in turn heated up the beaker and radiation suppliedheat to water the molecules got heated first and then the top ones due toconvection, and the water heating up caused the metal to warm up and itsupplied heat in form of radiation and conduction.

2.2Specificheat capacity is the total amount of heat energy required to raise thetemperature of a substance of mass 1 kg by 1 Kelvin. The specific heat capacityof a material is a physical property.

It can also be described as the heatrequired in joules to raise the temperature of mass 1 grams by 1 Kelvin. Heat Capacity (C)= Energy(Q)/Change in Temperature (Delta T)  Results: Metal Water Temp (D-Celsius/ Kelvin) Mass of water Mass of Metal Metal Temp (D-Celsius/ Kelvin) Water Temp with Metal (D-Celsius/ Kelvin) Difference of Water Temp (D-Celsius/ Kelvin) Difference of metal Temp (D-Celsius/ Kelvin) Group 1               Copper 23/296.15 100 64.92 100/373.15 28/301.15 5/278.

15 72/345.15 Aluminium 23/296.15 100 19.225 100373.15 26/299.15 3/275.15 74/347.

15 Group 2               Copper 24/297.15 100 65.036 100373.15 28/301.15 4/277.15 72/345.

15 Aluminium 24/297.15 100 11.895 100373.15 27/300.15 3/275.15 73/346.

15 Group 3               Iron 22.5/295.65 96.716 55.

992 99/372.15 27/300.15 4.

5/277.65 72/345.15 Iron 21/294.

15 100 34.543 99.1/372.25 24.3/297.45 3.

3/276.45 74.8/347.

95  Group 1Copper:0.1x 4184 x 5 = 2092 J2092/0.06492 x 72 = 447.

559 J/kg Aluminium:0.1 x 4184 x 3 = 1255.2 J1255.2/0.

019275 x 74 = 880 J/kg Group 2Copper:0.1x 4184 x 4 = 1673.6 J1673.6/0.065036 x 72 =357.4088881 J/kg Aluminium:0.

1x 4184 x 3 = 1255.2 J1255.2/0.011895 x 73 = 1445.525057 J/kg Group 3Iron:0.

1 x 4184 x 4.5 = 1882.8 J/kg1882.8/0.

055992 x 72 = 467.031 J/kg Iron:0.1 x 4181 x 3.3 = 1380.721380.72/0.034543 x 74.8 = 534.

37 J/kgConclusion:As the results are comparedit can be accurately showed that all heat capacities are unique for individualsubstances, it was theorized before that a substance’s atomic mass is relativeto their heat capacity; this is evident because different elements are composedof different structures, it’s these distinctive structures that make theelement special and these structures cause them to absorb energy differently.Evaluation:There are different reasonswhy some of the results gained for aluminium or other metals might beinaccurate. There is a possibility of different errors e.

g. human error, thetime it took to handover the aluminium, the duration of aluminium beingsubmerged in hot water, the water temperature might not have let it reach maxtemperature. Comparing the results Group 1 had the optimal conclusion and forrepeating the experiment their set up conditions would be applied.     Bibliography:1.     Heat capacity – Wikipedia.

2018. Heatcapacity – Wikipedia. ONLINE Available at: https://en.wikipedia.

org/wiki/Heat_capacity.Accessed 21 January 2018.2.     BBC – GCSE Bitesize: Specific heat capacity.2018.

BBC – GCSE Bitesize: Specific heat capacity.ONLINE Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/aqa/heatingandcooling/buildingsrev3.shtml.Accessed 21 January 2018.

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