References of the people who are in

  References Hawkins, John N. “Centralization, decentralization, recentralization ? Educational reform in China.” Journal of Educational Administration (2013): 442-445.   Johnson. CENTRALISATION / DECENTRALISATION. 2008. 20 Jan 2018

com/concept/centralisation-decentralisation>.   Webster, Amanda L. Formalisation of an organisational strucute .

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26 September 2017. .    The formalized organizational structurefocuses on roles and positions rather than the people in the positions.Formalization is the process of creating a formalized structure and includesthe maintenance of that formal structure over time (Webster). Formalization isbasically a process of forming a formal structure that is mainly focused onvery defined specific roles and positions instead of the people who are inpositions. It consists of top down reporting is hieratical and contains a decision-makingstructure.

It is based on explicit, regulations and codified rules. Generallyformalized structure would include multiple layers of supervisor.  Hewlett-Packard consists of informal structureso differentdepartments of companies meet their own objectives. HP is veryobjective based company, it focuses all on the results rather than formalitiesas their slogan refers “Make it Matter”.

Formalization    Hewlett Packard has hadit quite interesting as Nickerson and Zenger cite that in early 1970s companyhad chosen to be decentralized with a lot of smaller divisions and then soonhad three different divisions all working on desktop computers which were noteven compatible with each other. HP then centralized its computer divisionswhich resulted not only in compatible desktops but also very high level ofinnovation. As reported in 2000 they were a very company centralizedorganization dealing things from top as the one the major disadvantages of thedecentralized computing is that there are high chances of inconsistency as theorders are passed down to lower level managers and this may cost highly totechnical based organizations. As of now, Hewlett-Packard are overalldecentralized as the company’s size is way too big to be centralized anddelegates authority to low level managers, it believes in empowering itsemployees as they can also focus mainly on the product required by customersand their workers will be highly motivated to get the results as there arehigher chances of promotion but the company has not forgotten they came out ofmajor crisis after choosing a different strategy for the company. Decentralization is to give power andauthority to the lower and local levels to make decisions (Hawkins).

This means decisionmaking is much more spread out and now has a lot more managers in the hierarchythan before because there are people at lower level who have authority to makedecisions. Decentralization allows decisions to be made in relation to localconditions and circumstances. Apart from empowering local managers it alsoreduces the daily communication with the head office.

  Major advantages include that the localknowledge comes into the company and it can benefit them with sales andpromotions as they are very well targeted. Most importantly within theorganization there is a a lot of motivation within the workers as there arehigh chances of promotion and they tend to work harder hence producing overallbetter results for the company. Decentralization    Starting off withcentralization, Johnson (2008) describesthat “Centralization refers to the hierarchical level within an organization thathas authority to make decisions.”Centralization is the means of having totalcontrol of all the important decisions and sometimes even not so importantdecisions, this is when the top positions keep most of the power into their ownhands and do not delegate tasks.

Centralization is known to keep control and ismostly used to keep checks and make sure all the work is being done exactlyaccording to the wishes of people who are at the top of hierarchy.  Centralization allows you to easily implementnew company policies and practices for the overall organization as higherauthorities do not have to keep so much in mind and can generalize policies orpractices and it also prevents other smaller departments from becoming tooindependent. Hewlett-Packard was originally centralized and it gave them a lotof success as it was founded by two leaders who had a great vision for thecompany but soon they had to go change the structure as Centralization cancause delay of work as the main orders come from control room and that doesn’tallow quick decision also centralization causes problem with no specialattention to each employee as there is no personal supervision this can causeworkers to be very demotivated and hence slackness is shown in work. Centralization anddecentralization both are a measure of the degree to which authority is devotedwithin organization. Centralization  Andit started off from there and then later in 2007 it became world’s leading PCManufacturer. The company’s headquarters are in Palo, Alto California where itwas originally founded.

HP has grown and evolvedsignificantly since its founding in 1939. (HP)Hewlett-Packardwas founded in a famous “one-garage” by William Hewlett and David Packard toproduce electronic testing equipment. Hewlett-Packard


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