Question 1

Question 1 (a)

Values are essential beliefs that help us to regulate our day-to-day attitudes and behaviour and serve as broad guidelines in all situations. Values influence our perception. Common examples of values are loyalty, equality, justice and sources are family, peers, society, school, media, and religion.

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Values education can enhance the cultural factor within a person. The new NCF (2015) lays much emphasis on values Education to instill sound values in children to help them become responsible citizens. Hereby, the affective domain of learning will be addressed to develop learners socially, personally, physically and cognitively. There has been a shift from a quantitative performance based education system.

Learners acquire values through what they hear, see, read and experience. Ultimately, importance is given to the innate values of their role models who are normally their parents or teachers. So these persons should reflect on their own values and think about how they will translate the same into curricular content and the learning environment. They should reflect on the teaching strategies they will use, like drama, drawing, painting, collage, and storytelling or by enacting real life experiences, so that it becomes easy for the learners to put them into practice. Therefore teachers will act as guide to the students in adopting a true approach to values education. Below are only some of the aims of values education in relation with the new NCF which will be discussed.
Learning outcomes at the end of Grade 1 to 6 (NCF)
? Identify some values our society upholds
Our society upholds certain values like honesty, compassion, respect for the elderly among many others. It is worth teaching children that honesty starts towards oneself. For example, when they are given homework they should be honest enough to do it themselves instead of having them done by someone else like their parents or siblings. At school, children should be taught to be compassionate and caring to their friends, helping them in needs like if someone does not have a pencil, it is good to lend one. This will develop both empathy and sympathy in them. Today, at school, some children can be seen not having respect for their teachers, they refuse to abide by the rules set by the teacher or talk rudely to their teachers. Thus, it is necessary to teach children about respect as well as honesty and compassion.

? Describe what is good and wrong
Children at a tender age are not able to differentiate between right and wrong. For example, if a child is hungry, he will eat something he has brought to school. However, if a hungry child does not have anything to eat and he takes the bread of his classmate; in his opinion, there is nothing wrong in it. However, children should be taught that taking someone’s belonging without his permission is a bad thing. Other examples include being punctual, well disciplined, being trustworthy, forgiving, tolerant and generous which are all good actions and attitudes that one should possess. On the contrary, tardiness, misconduct, feeling jealous over quality or achievement of someone else, getting angry over petty issues, being aggressive and vindictive, using foul language are elements that are considered wrong and thus should be avoided.
? Understand their responsibilities at home
It is good to entrust children some responsibilities at home. Helping mothers in the kitchen or in cleaning the home, helping fathers washing the car or cleaning the yard, being sent on errands are examples of responsibilities that children can fulfil at home. Undoubtedly, it is parents who are primarily required to make their children become responsible. However, at school also, teachers can inculcate this value in them to be implemented at their domicile. For example, as students, there are some responsibilities that children should carry out at home like doing their homework and doing regular revision. Hence, it is vital for teachers to make children understand their responsibilities at home. By monitoring their homework and doing frequent assessments, teachers can ensure that the children assume their responsibilities at home.

? Understand their responsibilities in the classroom and at school
All students have the right to an education in an environment that is conducive to learning. So, they must become aware of certain responsibilities like respecting all staff members and fellow students. They should conduct themselves in a manner that does not disrupt the teaching and learning process in the class. They should be prepared for class with the appropriate materials and take care of all textbooks assigned to them as well as their personal property. Students are required to complete all classwork, respect school property and school facilities like the library or computer room. They are bound to arrive at school on time and follow all the school’s regulations like seeking permission from their teacher in order to leave the classroom. These are some responsibilities that children should be aware of.
? Demonstrate good citizenship behaviours
Littering has always been a common action of human beings despite being aware that it pollutes our surroundings and it causes harm to the natural beauty of our environment. Ultimately, it is of utmost importance to teach the young generation that they should protect the environment. They should avoid littering and sensitize their parents to do the same. Concerning protection of the environment, children should be encouraged to plant trees to fight against the misbalance in our eco system. Besides, at school level, children should learn how to protect public property. For example, they should not write on the walls of the classroom or break school property like tables, chairs or window panes. If they adopt such behaviours in the class, it will remain with them throughout their lives.
Hence, the primary curriculum finds it vital for children to learn about social values and values for their personal development and their character building as well as for their self-confidence and their behaviours.

Question 1 (b)
In the era of globalization, a big question mark has been put on values. Everything has reached its peak except moral values. The degradation of moral values in children refer to a lack of honesty, sincerity, respect, humanity etc. Children are becoming more and more selfish. Parents are teaching children to give more importance to marks, grades, awards, honours and the bookish knowledge is only helping the children to achieve their goal to some extent. Nationalism, family, society and morality hold less significance. Social interactions have decreased drastically. Consequently, Education without value is very harmful. We need to inculcate moral values in children for their holistic development and to tackle the disintegration of social relations. This will help them to develop positive attitudes in children and would prompt them to fight social evils.

Teachers play a great role in redressing the situation where disintegrating values have been headlines. Through positive approach teachers need to make children realise the importance of values. Teachers need to teach children how lack of humanism would be dangerous for the development of the society. In different areas of study, teachers can promote values like love, peace, good will and understanding. Teachers should exhibit core values like honesty, sincerity, truthfulness, secular outlook, good temperament, compassion and positive thinking. Teachers have a great impact on children; they can shape a child’s personality and character and through them children can be aware of their responsibilities of being a good citizen. Teachers should refrain from belittling a child and should motivate a child through positive comments and constructive criticism. This will help children to develop moral values, good habits and good thinking skills. They also need to develop socialization skills in children so that the latter interact with their friends, other children without any discrimination. Teachers should be the role models to develop moral values in children.

“School has been identified as a vehicle of direct instruction.”(Pekausky 1998). It is a social institution where norms, customs, values and ways of thinking prevail and it plays a valuable role in preparing children morally to meet challenges of their everyday life. To realise this, the school needs to contemplate upon factors which will influence children’s development. Parents and community groups should be integrated in them. Since children easily fall prey to the outer world, the school should provide an environment which will give children opportunities to use their moral reasoning.

The curriculum should devise plans and sufficient materials to create an awareness of moral education in them. A curriculum-oriented moral education should be infused with: problem-based learning, group discussions and using topics including moral issues. In this way, the curriculum evaluates the traditional approaches to the teaching of values. Sometimes the traditional approach need to be put aside with the evolution of technology and a new approach should be implemented which caters to the needs of children and bring them out of their lost virtual world.

Parents also play a vital role in shaping the character of children by exhibiting model behaviours. Parents can even negate certain code of conduct which are contrary to their positive set of behaviours. The approach of parents has a great influence on how the child receive information related to moral issues. If the adult gives proper care, attention and affection to the child, it would convey the moral message to the child. Parents’ interaction with the kids aids in the building up of moral development in the children. Parents should explain the reasons for rules and they should respond appropriately to violation of those rules. For example, parents can stimulate children to reflect on their actions. This implies that the more explicit parents are about why a behaviour is expected or a misdeed is wrong, the more effective the messages might be, particularly for young children. (Grusec and Goodness 1994). It is an undeniable fact that parents are the first role models of moral and values to the children.

Religions preaching about right and wrong, good and bad play an integral part in the moral development of children. Moral teachings have always been an important factor in every religion though religions might differ. For instance, The Bible is a book of ethical teachings for Christians and The Holy Qur’an is the Muslims’ code of conduct. Verily the importance of religious institutions in imparting moral lessons in children is accepted in all communities.

More emphasis should be put on values education so that the children are holistically developed. Besides home, it is school which is an appropriate place to teach moral values to children. Based on Hamre ; Pianta (2001), “the quality of early teacher-student relationships can have strong influence on academic and social outcomes that persist through eighth grade”.

Question 1 (c)
Piaget’s theory of moral development (1932)
Jean Piaget is famous for his theory of cognitive development as well as the theory of children’s moral development. He identified that there is a close relationship between the two.
According to Piaget, at the age of ten or more, children develop the morality. They realize that people must work together to be able to decide what is acceptable and unacceptable to create a cooperative society. They also learn that people understand and approach a moral situation differently. Hence, the children are being prepared to fit in an environment where they will have to work in collaboration with diverse people having diverse opinions. They also realize that when situations are handled reasonably, it becomes easier for people to accept the decision. For example, if a student complains of having lost his mobile phone and he doubts someone, it is not fair to check with only that child as it is only on the basis of doubt. However, if the teacher decides to check it with everyone, then it is a fair and agreeable decision.
Piaget was interested in children’s moral reasoning which has been classified as follows:

Piaget states that children’s thoughts concerning rules, moral judgements and punishment tend to change as they get older. According to him, there are two main types of moral thinking:
The first is Heteronomous Morality which is also known as moral realism. Children regard morality as obeying rules and laws made by some authority figures like parents, teacher, God which cannot be changed and breaking those rules will lead to punishment. This is referred to immanent justice. For example talking in the class while the teacher is explaining is breaking one of the rules of the class and when children are caught while doing so are punished. For example, the child may have to write lines that I should not talk when the teacher is explaining in the class. Thus, morality comes from the respect that children owe to their parents or teachers. Nevertheless, as children get older, circumstances of their lives change as well as their attitude to moral questions.

The second is Autonomous Morality which is also acknowledged as moral relativism. Children recognize that morality depends on intentions, not on consequences. Piaget believed that at the age of 9-10, children’s understanding of moral issues undergo an important reorganisation. They start to see moral rules from other people’s perspectives. So, when a child can decentre while considering other people’s intentions and circumstances, they can make more independent moral judgements and they start to think about rules, moral responsibility, punishment and justice, like that of adults. Children now understand that rules are made by people and those rules are changeable. Children begin to realize that if they behave in certain ways that appear to be wrong but their intentions are good, they will not be punished. For instance, the teacher’s mobile phone is ringing and the child wants to give it to the teacher who is outside but the mobile falls down. The child will understand that it happened by mistake not maliciously.
Piaget’s contributions were very significant and they had great influence on the work of Lawrence Kohlberg.
Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of Moral development (1958)
Kohlberg built on the early work of cognitive theorist Piaget concerning children’s construction of morality. His theory has been the foundation for a numerous programs designed to promote moral education. Kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning is based on three levels and six stages. According to him, a child develops from the capacity of pre-conventional morality before the age 9 to that of conventional morality in early adolescence and finally reaches the capacity of post-conventional morality.
Level 1: Pre conventional Morality
At this level, children do not have any personal code of morality. The latter is rather shaped by adults. Throughout this level, children’s sense of morality is externally controlled where they accept the rules of authority figures and they are only interested in securing their own benefit by avoiding punishment and by pleasing others.

Level 2 – Conventional morality
This is the stage where children learn about rules and authority and that there are certain “conventions” telling them how they should and should not behave and they should obey those conventions. Yet, they cannot make the difference between moral and legal principles. What is handed down by authority like the society is right and going against that is bad. This level is divided in two phases; in the first one children are concerned about pleasing others and securing others’ favours and in the second stage, children go further into believing that morality is what keeps the social order intact. Kohlberg states that many people remain in this stage for their whole lives where they keep deriving moral principles from social or religious authority figures and they never think about morality for themselves.

Level 3: Post conventional Morality
This level of morality is generally regarding the universal principles relative to the action done. While individual judgment is based on self-chosen principles, moral reasoning is based on individual rights and justice. Kohlberg states that the majority of people take their moral views from people around them and only a minority think over ethical principles for themselves. At this stage, children are expected to have learned about the difference between what is right and wrong morally and according to the rules. Even though they often overlap, sometimes breaking a rule might be right.

Hence, we can find that at the pre conventional level, children are supposed to abide by certain rules set by their parents and teachers and they try to avoid punishment by adhering to those rules whose importance remain unknown to them at this stage. However, children under nine years who have working parents and thus mostly have less parental attention, become independent to some extent very early. They already move to the conventional level where they know how they should behave and they are aware of what is right and what is wrong. At this stage, they have already developed their moral reasoning to some level. Nevertheless, where on one side children are having positive impact of becoming independent, there is also the issue where children lose their infancy at a very young age. Similarly, there is another great problem where children who lack parental love, attention and care suffer from being underdeveloped. They may be at the age where they were supposed to use their own moral reasoning at the post conventional level but unfortunately due to being unattended, they remain at the pre conventional level. Thus, it becomes vital for teachers to fill the void at school. They should cater for the moral development of children through moral and values education.

Question 1 (a)

Values are essential beliefs that help us to regulate our day-to-day attitudes and behaviour and serve as broad guidelines in all situations. Values influence our perception. Common examples of values are loyalty, equality, justice and sources are family, peers, society, school, media, and religion.

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Values education can enhance the cultural factor within a person. The new NCF (2015) lays much emphasis on values Education to instill sound values in children to help them become responsible citizens. Hereby, the affective domain of learning will be addressed to develop learners socially, personally, physically and cognitively. There has been a shift from a quantitative performance based education system.

Learners acquire values through what they hear, see, read and experience. Ultimately, importance is given to the innate values of their role models who are normally their parents or teachers. So these persons should reflect on their own values and think about how they will translate the same into curricular content and the learning environment. They should reflect on the teaching strategies they will use, like drama, drawing, painting, collage, and storytelling or by enacting real life experiences, so that it becomes easy for the learners to put them into practice. Therefore teachers will act as guide to the students in adopting a true approach to values education. Below are only some of the aims of values education in relation with the new NCF which will be discussed.
Learning outcomes at the end of Grade 1 to 6 (NCF)
? Identify some values our society upholds
Our society upholds certain values like honesty, compassion, respect for the elderly among many others. It is worth teaching children that honesty starts towards oneself. For example, when they are given homework they should be honest enough to do it themselves instead of having them done by someone else like their parents or siblings. At school, children should be taught to be compassionate and caring to their friends, helping them in needs like if someone does not have a pencil, it is good to lend one. This will develop both empathy and sympathy in them. Today, at school, some children can be seen not having respect for their teachers, they refuse to abide by the rules set by the teacher or talk rudely to their teachers. Thus, it is necessary to teach children about respect as well as honesty and compassion.

? Describe what is good and wrong
Children at a tender age are not able to differentiate between right and wrong. For example, if a child is hungry, he will eat something he has brought to school. However, if a hungry child does not have anything to eat and he takes the bread of his classmate; in his opinion, there is nothing wrong in it. However, children should be taught that taking someone’s belonging without his permission is a bad thing. Other examples include being punctual, well disciplined, being trustworthy, forgiving, tolerant and generous which are all good actions and attitudes that one should possess. On the contrary, tardiness, misconduct, feeling jealous over quality or achievement of someone else, getting angry over petty issues, being aggressive and vindictive, using foul language are elements that are considered wrong and thus should be avoided.
? Understand their responsibilities at home
It is good to entrust children some responsibilities at home. Helping mothers in the kitchen or in cleaning the home, helping fathers washing the car or cleaning the yard, being sent on errands are examples of responsibilities that children can fulfil at home. Undoubtedly, it is parents who are primarily required to make their children become responsible. However, at school also, teachers can inculcate this value in them to be implemented at their domicile. For example, as students, there are some responsibilities that children should carry out at home like doing their homework and doing regular revision. Hence, it is vital for teachers to make children understand their responsibilities at home. By monitoring their homework and doing frequent assessments, teachers can ensure that the children assume their responsibilities at home.

? Understand their responsibilities in the classroom and at school
All students have the right to an education in an environment that is conducive to learning. So, they must become aware of certain responsibilities like respecting all staff members and fellow students. They should conduct themselves in a manner that does not disrupt the teaching and learning process in the class. They should be prepared for class with the appropriate materials and take care of all textbooks assigned to them as well as their personal property. Students are required to complete all classwork, respect school property and school facilities like the library or computer room. They are bound to arrive at school on time and follow all the school’s regulations like seeking permission from their teacher in order to leave the classroom. These are some responsibilities that children should be aware of.
? Demonstrate good citizenship behaviours
Littering has always been a common action of human beings despite being aware that it pollutes our surroundings and it causes harm to the natural beauty of our environment. Ultimately, it is of utmost importance to teach the young generation that they should protect the environment. They should avoid littering and sensitize their parents to do the same. Concerning protection of the environment, children should be encouraged to plant trees to fight against the misbalance in our eco system. Besides, at school level, children should learn how to protect public property. For example, they should not write on the walls of the classroom or break school property like tables, chairs or window panes. If they adopt such behaviours in the class, it will remain with them throughout their lives.
Hence, the primary curriculum finds it vital for children to learn about social values and values for their personal development and their character building as well as for their self-confidence and their behaviours.

Question 1 (b)
In the era of globalization, a big question mark has been put on values. Everything has reached its peak except moral values. The degradation of moral values in children refer to a lack of honesty, sincerity, respect, humanity etc. Children are becoming more and more selfish. Parents are teaching children to give more importance to marks, grades, awards, honours and the bookish knowledge is only helping the children to achieve their goal to some extent. Nationalism, family, society and morality hold less significance. Social interactions have decreased drastically. Consequently, Education without value is very harmful. We need to inculcate moral values in children for their holistic development and to tackle the disintegration of social relations. This will help them to develop positive attitudes in children and would prompt them to fight social evils.

Teachers play a great role in redressing the situation where disintegrating values have been headlines. Through positive approach teachers need to make children realise the importance of values. Teachers need to teach children how lack of humanism would be dangerous for the development of the society. In different areas of study, teachers can promote values like love, peace, good will and understanding. Teachers should exhibit core values like honesty, sincerity, truthfulness, secular outlook, good temperament, compassion and positive thinking. Teachers have a great impact on children; they can shape a child’s personality and character and through them children can be aware of their responsibilities of being a good citizen. Teachers should refrain from belittling a child and should motivate a child through positive comments and constructive criticism. This will help children to develop moral values, good habits and good thinking skills. They also need to develop socialization skills in children so that the latter interact with their friends, other children without any discrimination. Teachers should be the role models to develop moral values in children.

“School has been identified as a vehicle of direct instruction.”(Pekausky 1998). It is a social institution where norms, customs, values and ways of thinking prevail and it plays a valuable role in preparing children morally to meet challenges of their everyday life. To realise this, the school needs to contemplate upon factors which will influence children’s development. Parents and community groups should be integrated in them. Since children easily fall prey to the outer world, the school should provide an environment which will give children opportunities to use their moral reasoning.

The curriculum should devise plans and sufficient materials to create an awareness of moral education in them. A curriculum-oriented moral education should be infused with: problem-based learning, group discussions and using topics including moral issues. In this way, the curriculum evaluates the traditional approaches to the teaching of values. Sometimes the traditional approach need to be put aside with the evolution of technology and a new approach should be implemented which caters to the needs of children and bring them out of their lost virtual world.

Parents also play a vital role in shaping the character of children by exhibiting model behaviours. Parents can even negate certain code of conduct which are contrary to their positive set of behaviours. The approach of parents has a great influence on how the child receive information related to moral issues. If the adult gives proper care, attention and affection to the child, it would convey the moral message to the child. Parents’ interaction with the kids aids in the building up of moral development in the children. Parents should explain the reasons for rules and they should respond appropriately to violation of those rules. For example, parents can stimulate children to reflect on their actions. This implies that the more explicit parents are about why a behaviour is expected or a misdeed is wrong, the more effective the messages might be, particularly for young children. (Grusec and Goodness 1994). It is an undeniable fact that parents are the first role models of moral and values to the children.

Religions preaching about right and wrong, good and bad play an integral part in the moral development of children. Moral teachings have always been an important factor in every religion though religions might differ. For instance, The Bible is a book of ethical teachings for Christians and The Holy Qur’an is the Muslims’ code of conduct. Verily the importance of religious institutions in imparting moral lessons in children is accepted in all communities.

More emphasis should be put on values education so that the children are holistically developed. Besides home, it is school which is an appropriate place to teach moral values to children. Based on Hamre ; Pianta (2001), “the quality of early teacher-student relationships can have strong influence on academic and social outcomes that persist through eighth grade”.

Question 1 (c)
Piaget’s theory of moral development (1932)
Jean Piaget is famous for his theory of cognitive development as well as the theory of children’s moral development. He identified that there is a close relationship between the two.
According to Piaget, at the age of ten or more, children develop the morality. They realize that people must work together to be able to decide what is acceptable and unacceptable to create a cooperative society. They also learn that people understand and approach a moral situation differently. Hence, the children are being prepared to fit in an environment where they will have to work in collaboration with diverse people having diverse opinions. They also realize that when situations are handled reasonably, it becomes easier for people to accept the decision. For example, if a student complains of having lost his mobile phone and he doubts someone, it is not fair to check with only that child as it is only on the basis of doubt. However, if the teacher decides to check it with everyone, then it is a fair and agreeable decision.
Piaget was interested in children’s moral reasoning which has been classified as follows:

Piaget states that children’s thoughts concerning rules, moral judgements and punishment tend to change as they get older. According to him, there are two main types of moral thinking:
The first is Heteronomous Morality which is also known as moral realism. Children regard morality as obeying rules and laws made by some authority figures like parents, teacher, God which cannot be changed and breaking those rules will lead to punishment. This is referred to immanent justice. For example talking in the class while the teacher is explaining is breaking one of the rules of the class and when children are caught while doing so are punished. For example, the child may have to write lines that I should not talk when the teacher is explaining in the class. Thus, morality comes from the respect that children owe to their parents or teachers. Nevertheless, as children get older, circumstances of their lives change as well as their attitude to moral questions.

The second is Autonomous Morality which is also acknowledged as moral relativism. Children recognize that morality depends on intentions, not on consequences. Piaget believed that at the age of 9-10, children’s understanding of moral issues undergo an important reorganisation. They start to see moral rules from other people’s perspectives. So, when a child can decentre while considering other people’s intentions and circumstances, they can make more independent moral judgements and they start to think about rules, moral responsibility, punishment and justice, like that of adults. Children now understand that rules are made by people and those rules are changeable. Children begin to realize that if they behave in certain ways that appear to be wrong but their intentions are good, they will not be punished. For instance, the teacher’s mobile phone is ringing and the child wants to give it to the teacher who is outside but the mobile falls down. The child will understand that it happened by mistake not maliciously.
Piaget’s contributions were very significant and they had great influence on the work of Lawrence Kohlberg.
Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of Moral development (1958)
Kohlberg built on the early work of cognitive theorist Piaget concerning children’s construction of morality. His theory has been the foundation for a numerous programs designed to promote moral education. Kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning is based on three levels and six stages. According to him, a child develops from the capacity of pre-conventional morality before the age 9 to that of conventional morality in early adolescence and finally reaches the capacity of post-conventional morality.
Level 1: Pre conventional Morality
At this level, children do not have any personal code of morality. The latter is rather shaped by adults. Throughout this level, children’s sense of morality is externally controlled where they accept the rules of authority figures and they are only interested in securing their own benefit by avoiding punishment and by pleasing others.

Level 2 – Conventional morality
This is the stage where children learn about rules and authority and that there are certain “conventions” telling them how they should and should not behave and they should obey those conventions. Yet, they cannot make the difference between moral and legal principles. What is handed down by authority like the society is right and going against that is bad. This level is divided in two phases; in the first one children are concerned about pleasing others and securing others’ favours and in the second stage, children go further into believing that morality is what keeps the social order intact. Kohlberg states that many people remain in this stage for their whole lives where they keep deriving moral principles from social or religious authority figures and they never think about morality for themselves.

Level 3: Post conventional Morality
This level of morality is generally regarding the universal principles relative to the action done. While individual judgment is based on self-chosen principles, moral reasoning is based on individual rights and justice. Kohlberg states that the majority of people take their moral views from people around them and only a minority think over ethical principles for themselves. At this stage, children are expected to have learned about the difference between what is right and wrong morally and according to the rules. Even though they often overlap, sometimes breaking a rule might be right.

Hence, we can find that at the pre conventional level, children are supposed to abide by certain rules set by their parents and teachers and they try to avoid punishment by adhering to those rules whose importance remain unknown to them at this stage. However, children under nine years who have working parents and thus mostly have less parental attention, become independent to some extent very early. They already move to the conventional level where they know how they should behave and they are aware of what is right and what is wrong. At this stage, they have already developed their moral reasoning to some level. Nevertheless, where on one side children are having positive impact of becoming independent, there is also the issue where children lose their infancy at a very young age. Similarly, there is another great problem where children who lack parental love, attention and care suffer from being underdeveloped. They may be at the age where they were supposed to use their own moral reasoning at the post conventional level but unfortunately due to being unattended, they remain at the pre conventional level. Thus, it becomes vital for teachers to fill the void at school. They should cater for the moral development of children through moral and values education.

Question 1: Critically articulate the theory or the model associated with the information provided above

INTRODUCTION
The psychodynamic approach comprises all the models in psychology which see human’s operative built upon the interface of energies and forces inside the individual, mostly unconscious, and amongst the diverse structures of the character. Freud’s psychoanalysis remained the novel psychodynamic concept, nevertheless the entire psychodynamic method contained all models that remained grounded on his ideas, the words’ psychodynamic and psychoanalytic was regularly jumbled. Recollect that Freud’s concepts stayed psychoanalytic, but the term ‘psychodynamic’ mentioned to both his philosophies and those of his supporters. Freud’s psychoanalysis is equally a concept and rehabilitation.
Sigmund Freud (amongst the 1890s and the 1930s) established a group of philosophies that have designed the foundation of the psychodynamic method to psychology. His models are efficiently acquired – i.e., grounded on what his patients told him during a therapy. The psychodynamic therapist would regularly be giving to the patient for misery or worry associated syndromes. Through his psychodynamic philosophy of the psyche, Sigmund Freud declared that our character and the intellectual problems that we grieve can be sketched outside our conscious self-discipline – that our unintentional mind, and the inborn instincts that we might not be alert of, are what inspires the mode in which we act. Freud remained an initial browser of speaking remedy, which presumed that by speaking about an issue with a psychotherapist, an individual can recognize any problems that may have happened previously in lifetime and in chance, overpowered the existing inner battles of their unconscious observance. His interest was in the changing aspects of the mind – the conscious and its subconscious influences. He felt that the energy in the psyche was an endless value, and so instead of vanishing from the conscious, it would shape up in the subconscious and cause cumulative inner tension until it was addressed. For example, if something annoys you, the liveliness of your anger does not expend itself if you internalize it. Rather, it may be moved to the subconscious, and lead to a suppressed anger which you may be ignorant of on a conscious level. Freud claimed that the human psyche contained of three separate areas – the id, ego, and superego – which compete against one another for control over our behavior.
THE ID signifies our most thoughtless, wild needs, and pay no respect for what is suitable or sensible. Inborn characters such as the need for food, water, warmth and sexual desires originate in our id. In a sense, the id is our ‘inner child’ – it drives our natural behaviors from birth and supposes its anxieties to be met instantly, irrespective of any penalties. The id stands by the Desire Code, which declares that we seek to maximize pleasure and sidestep pain wherever possible. Also confined
within the id is the death determination, a self-destructive impulsiveness which drives us to the end of our life.

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THE EGO
The next component of the psyche is the ego, which acts as a midway between the awkward demands of the id and the outside reality. It tries to please the desires of the id as much as is virtually possible without essentially considering why some demands might be unreasonable. The ego remains self-centred and does not ponder on other people’s needs or wishes. It acts according to the Realism Attitude, which, is different from the Desire Code of the ID, takes the confines of what can be gotten from the outside world.

THE SUPEREGO
The final factor of our psyche is the superego. This senses concern for others and again tries to satisfy the wants of the id, but recognize that some of those wants may unfavorably touch others. It acts as a filter for our behavior and preserves our conscience, leading to considering other people’s emotions and to demonstrative responsibility.
CRITICAL EVALUATION
The utmost reproach of the psychodynamic approach is that it is irrational in its examination of human behavior. Many of the perceptions central to Freud’s theories are independent, and as such, tough to exam technically. For example, how is it conceivable to scientifically study perceptions like the unconscious mind or the triple personality? In this reverence, it could be claimed that the psychodynamic viewpoint is confirmable as its theories cannot be empirically examined. However, cognitive psychology has recognized unconscious procedures, such as procedural memory (Tulving, 1972), automatic processing (Bargh & Chartrand, 1999; Stroop, 1935), and social psychology have revealed the position of implied processing (Greenwald & Banaji, 1995). Such experimental results have established the character of unconscious processes in human behaviour.
Kline (1989) claims that psychodynamic theory contains a sequence of hypotheses, some of which are more simply verified than others, and some with more subsidiary evidence than others. Also, while the theories of the psychodynamic approach may not be effortlessly verified, this does not mean that it does not have solid descriptive control. However, most of the proves for psychodynamic theories is interpreted from Freud’s case studies. The core situation now is that the case studies are supported on reviewing one individual in detail, and with input to Freud, the persons in question are most often his patients. This makes inductive reasoning to the whole world tough. Other tricks with the case study technique is that it is inclined to scientist favouritism. Review of Freud’s scientific effort advises that he occasionally one-sided his patients’ case antiquities to ‘fit’ with his theory (Sulloway, 1991). The humanistic approach makes the reproach that the psychodynamic viewpoint is too settled. Freud proposes that all views, characters, and reactions are resolute by our infant understandings and unconscious psychological procedures. This is dimness because it recommends, we have no conscious power over our actions, parting slight room for the knowledge of own action.

Question2. Through a real time example of a businessmen associated with the model, critically examine the creative and innovation he adapted in his business to be successful

THE SUCCESS STORY OF OPRAH WINFREY, the wealthiest African American of the 20th era, was born in Kosciusko, Mississippi in 1958, on 29th of January. She is recognized as the most self-made American television fabricator, host, and humanitarian and is among the utmost powerful women in the universe. She did not have a hopeful infancy and had to experience a diversity of poverties in her adolescent life. After her parents’ parting, she was referred to her grandparents, to lived in so much lack. Some say that she used to
dress on clothes made of potato sack. She united with her mother at the age of 6 who relocated with her to Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Her mother spent her all day out employed as a maid at homes and had no time for petite Winfrey. At the age of nine, as she says, she was raped by her cousin, her uncle, and a family friend. When she could not take it anymore, she flees away from her home at the age of 13 and had a child at 14. After her son’s demise in embryonic stage, she went back to live with her hair stylist father in Tennessee. This was the first time, as she recollected, she that she studied extremely hard and attained an honours’ student. Her devotion shortly was rewarded and she turned out to be the most popular student at East Nashville High School and gained numerous honors in open speech competition. Later, she went to study communication from Tennessee State University.
At the age of 19, her life was turned around when she was employed at a local Radio Station as a co-anchor for the local evening news. In 1984, she underway to host ‘AM Chicago’, an early morning talk show where she shared her story and used it to motivate other women who had similar experience with her, which later most watched show in America. Later, it was retitled as ‘The Oprah Winfrey Show’. The combined talk show turns out to be the most widespread show in the Television antiquity with over 30 million American audiences and traversed across 144 nations international. She has also shown herself as the greatest significant spiritual frontrunner through ‘Change Your Life TV’ with 22 million feminine spectators.
Apart from being a TV host and producer, she is the co-founder of Oxygen Media and initiator of Oprah Magazine. In 1998, she began a contribution named “Oprah’s Angel Network” for which she handles all organizational costs. She is recognized as the 32nd most humanitarian person in the universe. In 2005, Business Week recruited her name amongst 50 most substantial humanitarians for her involvement which was comparable to $303 million dollars. As said by Forbes of 2009, her valuable is $2.7 billion dollar.

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