Proposal a

Proposal
a) Company overview
Firefly is an airline that offers convenience and seamless service in short-haul air travel to their passengers. Firefly travel experience is simple and aims to set the standard for service with their commitment to deliver hassle-free regional connectivity to their passengers.

b) Company history
Firefly airline launched on 3 April 2007. Its head office is in Petaling Yaya, Selangor. It claims to be the first community airline in Malaysia.

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c) Legal structure and ownership
Firefly airline is operated by Flyfirefly Sdn Bhd in 2007 now formerly known as MAS Sdn Bhd. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of Malaysia Airlines Bhd.

d) Location and facilities
It operates from two hubs, Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport from Subang and Penang International Airport.

e) Mission Statement
Firefly mission statement is to strengthen their footprint by offering exceptional services and sustaining the profitability of their company above industry average. During the process of dominate their routes, they also take pride in aligning their business model and work culture to their social conscience.

f) Management team
Firefly has a separate management apart from its parent company, Malaysia Airlines. Firefly focuses on serving Malaysia as well as Indonesia, Singapore and Thailand. Idris Jala, Malaysia Airlines’ managing director. By end-2018, Firefly, the sole turboprop operator in Changi Airport will move to Seletar Airport as Changi Airport wants to focus more on their jet operations.

Reference: http://www.fireflyz.com.my/about/company-profile?
Question 1a)
Organization’s culture
• It is defined as the underlying beliefs, assumptions, values and ways of interacting that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization.
• It includes an organization’s expectations, experiences, philosophy, as well as the values that guide member behaviour, and to expressed in member self-image, inner workings, interactions with the outside, and written and unwritten rules that have been developed over time and are considered valid.
• Organization’s culture includes the organization’s vision, values, norms, systems, symbols, language, assumption, beliefs, and habits
• In a simple way, organizational culture is “the way things are done around here” stated by Deal ; Kennedy in year 2000.
• Organizational culture affects the way people and groups interact with each other, with clients, and with stakeholders.
• Organizational culture may influence how much employees identify with their organization.
Organization’s politics
• Organization’s politics play a large role in how most business function and are run.
• Organization’s politics consist of self-serving actions taken by an individual or group.
• It is informal, unofficial, and sometimes behind-the-scenes efforts to sell ideas, influence an organization, increase power, or achieve other targeted objectives.
• Without political awareness and skill, a company will face the inevitable prospect of becoming immersed.
Organization’s power
• A manager will have the power to rewards or punish the employee.
• It will influence the employee mood to work.
• Manager still have the power to control the employee by doing any task.
• Having power and using power is a different thing, because the power that manager have they might use it wrongly.
• Also, they have legitimate power which is power that comes from one’s organization role or position.
• They have a position or role to support them using the power.

Reference: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/power-influence-politics-workplace-19058.html

Question 1b)
Culture influence an organization
• It highly influences in the behaviour and performance of individuals and team in achieving an organization’s mission, vision, purpose and the goals.
• This element can make employees to become the high-performance employees.
• Also improve the productivity of their company through mission, vision, purpose and the goals.
• Example: Firefly’s train every single employee to improve themselves and only select the most potential employees.
• Organization’s culture defined as the tradition and value of employees.
• All the employees are encouraged to focus on excellence in communication in Firefly company.
• It will help the organization to maintain their market position.

Political influence an organization
• Malaysia is a more ethnic country in the world with many different religious beliefs.
• In Malaysia, we have three main religions which is Malay, Chinese and Indian.
• We can easily say that the main politics affecting in Malaysia of an organization are religious issues.
• Example: Most of the company will give Malay peoples to have the priority right for every services.
• But in an organization, everyone must avoid discussing the politics and religion issues.

Power influence an organization
• Formal power and personal power can directly influence a leadership in an organization.
• Such as reward power, legitimate power, referent power, expert power and coercive power.
• Example: Firefly apply those power for their company to make sure all the employees can have a better performance while working in the company.

Reference: https://www.ukessays.com/essays/politics/influence-power-politics-and-control.php?
Question 2a)
Content theories
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
• The theory is talking about the needs of human in 5 levels.
• The 5 levels include physiological needs, safe, love and belongs, self-esteem and self-actualization.
• An organization such as Firefly can apply this theory to improve and increase the employees’ motivation.
• Firefly should give a more flexible working hour to employees.
• Firefly should give a high job security to employees.
• As the motivation is increased and improved, the goal of organization which is to increase the productivity of Firefly able to be achieved.

Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
• It explains that motivating factors which increases job satisfaction and motivation and hygiene factors cause individuals unhappy and dissatisfied on jobs.
• Firefly should always apply motivating factors and prevent the hygiene factors occurring in the company.
• It may able to increase the motivation and job satisfaction of employees.
• Thus, it may help Firefly to achieve the goal of organization effectively.

McClelland’s Theory of Needs
• The theory explained that the dominant motivator depends on culture and life.
• The 3 motivators are achievement, affiliation and power.
• Firefly management should reward or provide a higher position of company for those who have higher achievement.
• Through this reward systems, the employees may have high motivation and always compete between each other to get a higher achievement.

Alderfer’s ERG Theory
• Alderfer distinguished 3 classes of needs which are existence, relatedness and growth.
• Motivation of employees in Firefly may able to be improved when they get the needs based on Alderfer’s ERG Theory.
• Firefly should provide these needs to employees to enable the goals of company achieved more effectively.

?
Process theories
Skinner’s reinforcement theory
• An organization such as Firefly should always praise, appreciation or give other reward to increase the possibility of the rewarded behaviours’ repetition.
• Firefly management should reduce punishment toward employees.
• If Firefly able to apply this theory a positive behaviour and environment able to be formed which is one of the goal of Firefly.

Victor Vroom’s expectancy theory
• It emphasises that motivation is determined by expectancy, instrumentality and valence.
• The employees’ motivation able to increase as the management of Firefly able to apply on the employees.
• Thus, the goal which is high productivity able to be achieved,

Adam’s equity theory
This theory emphasises that people can be motivated as they are treated equitable.
• Firefly should treat all employees same and there is no discrimination.
• In inequity exits, it may reduce his/her workforce.
• It may cause the output of Firefly reduce and the goal of Firefly might be though to be achieved.

Locke’s goal setting theory
• It emphasises that setting specific and challenging performance goals can determine motivation.
• Firefly should set suitable goals or mission to let the employees feel challenging.
• It may raise up the motivation of employees and able to achieve the goals.

Motivational technique
Using intrinsic rewards
• Firefly should provide intrinsic rewards to employees to raise the motivation.
• Firefly can provide challenging and interesting work for them.
• It may able to increase productivity and the goal of organization might be able to be achieved.

Using extrinsic rewards
• Firefly can offer extrinsic reward to employees to increase the motivation.
• Firefly can provide a higher pay or bonus.
• It creates a competitive environment among employees to compete for the rewards.

?
Share profit
• It can offer to those who work for Firefly for many years.
• Firefly can offer them with some shares.
• It able to let them to give out their opinion during annual general meeting.
• The employees might have control power towards the company.

Training and development
• Firefly can offer those employees with some training programmes.
• It may able to increase their motivation if they attend course which able to raise motivation and develop new skills.
• These programmes able to increase their current performance and the goal of Firefly able to be achieved.

Reference:https://www.tankonyvtar.hu/hu/tartalom/tamop412A/2011-0023_Psychology/030300.scorml
Question 2b)
Motivational Theories
• The behaviour of an organization can be formed or affected by using a motivational theory.
• Motivational theories will influence the motivation and behaviour of employees in an organization.
• Management can raise the employees’ motivation and build positive behaviour by using the motivational theory.
• It will help the management to improve employees’ performance.
• For example, Firefly using Hierarchy of Needs Theory to improve motivation of employees and form positive working environment for them.

Motivational Models
• An organization can use motivational models to form positive behaviours among employees.
• Motivational models can provide useful strategic for Firefly in improving motivation of employees.
• Motivational models will provide an example to management in building employees’ behaviour.
• The models will help management to determine what should be done and what should not be done.
• For example, Firefly uses motivation-hygiene factors models to build strategic in improving the performance and productivity.

Motivational Concept
• Organization such as Firefly able to use motivational concept to build positive and motivated behaviour among employees.
• The motivational concept provides the factors that able to determine the behaviour of an individual.
• It will provide management a good plan in improving the behaviour of employees.
• As the behaviour of employees be improved, it will increase the company’s productivity and profitability.
• For example, Firefly can use motivational concept to know what needs to be prepared to improve behaviour of the employees.

Reference: https://www.slideshare.net/rmullenger/motivation-models?
Question 2c)
Relationship 1: Internal political
Culture
• Culture of an organization is grouping with those who are powerful in an organization.
• The employees will only give good attitude foe those who is powerful in the organization.
Politics
• It may lead to the occur of internal political among employees.
• Managers might only promote “his people” only.
Power
• As the result, it may cause those who is at higher position or have more power may have more people to follow him.
Motivation
• It may lead to the motivational in an organization become lower.
• It may cause the productivity of an organization reduces.
• For example, there is internal politics in Firefly. It leads to the occurrence of bias and occur of unfair in rewarding. It causes the employee’s motivation to become slow and lower down the productivity.
Recommendation
• The management should practise the separation of power in organization.
• Performance of an individual might be measured by more people.
• A more fair and acceptable result will be given through practicing this system.

Relationship 2: Discrimination on female workers
Culture
• It may cause the male workers not respect on female workers.
• They may not recognise the contribution of female workers.
Politic
• It causes the numbers of manager or supervisor might become more than female.
• Male leader might be more popular compared to female.
Power
• It leads to male workers or male manager may have more power compare to female workers.
Motivation
• It may cause the female workers feel sad.
• There is lack of motivation among female workers.
• It may lead to high motivation among male workers.
• For example, if Firefly is facing discrimination on female. It leads the incident of female is unable to be recognised in the company. Female workers unable to receive fair reward.
?
Recommendation
• Management should give more chance for female workers to perform.
• More female workers should be promoted, and their contribution should be recognised
• A project tam should be built by male and female employees.
• More female employees can hold higher and important position of an organization.

Relationship 3: Discrimination on races
Culture
• The employees are separated themselves based on skin colour and races.
• The human resource department might only recruit employees based on races and not ability.
• As they have a concept that this race of people is not trustable.
Politic
• The manager will only promote those who is same races and culture.
• The internal politic which is only give chance for those “favourite person”.
Power
• The higher position in organization might be only holder by only one races.
Motivation
• Motivation for those who is different races will become low as they know that they might not be promoted whether the performance is good or not.
• It might be lead to high motivation for those same races employees.
• For example, if the important position in the Firefly is hold by only one type of races of people and they will only promote the employees who is same culture and races, it leads low motivation and productivity among employees.
Recommendation
• Important position in an organization should be built by different races.
• A team of project should be built by more types of races of people.
• Company should recruit employees based on their ability and not based on races.

Reference: https://www.slideshare.net/rmullenger/motivation-models?
Question 3a)
Introduction
The definition of the team is a small number of complementary skilled employees to committed to a common purpose, common performance goals and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.
Effective team
• It is defined as one of the many ways to organize employees’ teamwork.
• An effective team has certain features that enable team members to work more efficiently.
• An effective team develops ways to share leadership roles and ways to share responsibilities for their work.
• The characteristics of effective team are communication, goals and leaderships.
• In an effective team, all members must communicate among each other to make sure that the task can be complete perfectly.
• Every work performance will be evaluated and status of ongoing tasks within the meetings will be discuss as well.
• All the employees must attend all the meetings to receive the feedback from the work tasks and discuss how the employees should correct the mistake that have been made.
• In addition, a leader of a team had to make sure that all the employees can get the clear information when they are all members of the team.
• Firefly’s employees have a very good of communication skill because they are all in services industry and as a flight company, they must know how to communicate well.
• An effective team must have a clear goal as well.
• A clear goal is very important for an effective team.
Ineffective team
• Ineffective team are either not clear on what matters or simply not able to able-willing to rule some stuff out.
• They are suck at communicating what matters.
• All the fine sounding values, beliefs, and behaviours that they talk about they don’t live-model-embody it.
• For ineffective leaders find all kinds of reasons and excuses for not dealing with the real issues and instead spend their time on what they are comfortable with.
• All the ineffective leaders are drunk on their own importance and thus push their views, their agenda, on to the favoured few that they invite to the conversation.
• They will only focus on what matters to them and their favoured constituency.

Reference: http://www.eventus.co.uk/effective-vs-ineffective-teams/

Question 3b)
Relevant team and group development theories to support the development of dynamic cooperation.
• The definition of group development is that when an organization or group is formed. A group development has experienced a certain degree of predictability from a process.
• To collect individuals into a cohesive group that works for a common cause we need group development to proceed.
• Engaging atmosphere by encouraging collaboration, teamwork, interdependence and confidence-building between team members created by group development.

Tuckman’s Stage model
• It describes five linear stages of group development which are forming, storming, norming, performance and adjourning.
• In the forming stage, mostly employees are active and politic, but some of them are anxious because they have not fully understood what they should do to achieve the organizational goals.
• In second stage, we call it as storming. The team members will fight for each other’s arguments about the group structure, which often emotional charged, indicating that the group is gaining the seat.
• In this stage have some characteristics which is lack of cohesive, subjectively, inconsistency and failure.
• Third stage is norming. In this stage, people will start to resolve their differences and appreciate their colleagues. They start to share their ideas, feelings and giving feedback to each other. But still the conflict agreement that ends during norming step is there.
• Next stage is performing. When all the members work toward their common goals, the confidence will grow both individually and with other members of the group. They focused its energies and attention on its goal, displaying higher rates of task orientation, decision making and problem-solving.
• And the last stage of the group development is adjourning. Once the tasks given are completed, all of them will separated themselves from each other.
• In addition, the groups conduct annual reviews and implementation of the role conversion plan and confirm the contributions of members.
• All of them will also share their own feeling and opinion about the results of the tasks or maybe the operation of tasks that happened.

?
Wheelan’s integrated model of group development
• In this integrated model has three phases.
• Phase I, a team approaches the behavioural patterns of its project at the first meeting.
• Because of the members may not be aware of the purpose and the information may seem a little or no noticeable progress.
• In the midpoint level, it will proceed to team transformation.
• They know what to do and how to do their jobs then allows them to take advantages of the step-by-step learning they have done.
• Lastly is Phase II. This is the last phase that the members move out from the midpoint level.
• All the team members will leave through the positive and negative consequences of past choices when a team makes last minute effort.

Reference: https://the-happy-manager.com/articles/teamwork-theory/
Question 4a)
Concepts of organizational behaviour
• A field of study that investigates the impact of the individuals or group in the organizations.
• Understanding the interaction of the individuals in the organizations.
• Concepts of organization behaviour contains 3 levels of analysis: individuals, groups and organizations.
• The concepts of OB are to study of how people act in organisation and help to suggest ways to improving organisational problems in general.
• Behaviour of the individuals is the action that communicates and exhibits the character, it is also a reaction of something under specified circumstances.
• OB can have classified as an action or attitudes of individuals or groups toward each other or the organization that it may cause influences on the functioning and performance of the organization.
• Just as Robbins says that OB is a field of study that investigates the impact that individual, groups and structure have on behaviour within organization.
• For an example, Firefly company contains the concepts of behaviour of respect the culture of its passengers, such as providing halal food to Malaysia citizens.

?
Philosophies of organizational behaviour
• In the philosophies of Kautilaya’s Arthsastra toward OB relationship with friend, superior, subordinate was born, it occurs the wage rate and difference, and the values in organization.
• In year 1800, Robert Owen emphasize the human factor in organization.
• In year 1880, Frederiek Taylor decides to time each worker at the Midvale Steel Company, his view of the future becomes highly accurate
• In year 1922, Max Weber gives the concepts of Bureaucracy regarded as the abstract system for rational solution of management problems without the frictions caused by human errors and emotions.
• In year 1932, Elton Mayo becomes the first to question the behavioural assumption of scientific management. The studies concluded the human factors were more important than physical conditions in motivating employee to greater productivity.
• However, the OB in the modern era changes everything. In 1954, the Hierarchy of Needs provides the framework for gaining employees commitment. Leadership and Management becomes more efficient, Drucker writes the 5 basic roles of managers becomes the main goal and key point for the organization t be successful.
• In 1959, Hygiene and Motivational Factors developed by Frederick Herzberg except it more closely related to works, it is based on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.
• In 1960s, the organization development became the systematic application of behavioural science knowledge at various levels
• In 1990, Learning organization discipline developed by Peter Senge described about the organization as an organism with the capacity to enhance its capabilities and shape of its own future.

Reference: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3123547/

Question 4b)
Positive way
• Effective management in the organization brings the success of an organization, behaviour of people within an organization is governed by their ideas, feelings and activities.
• Certain employees may be compassionate and helpful towards their co-workers which helps to create a supportive work culture. The selfless attitude become a result of employee’s faith in the management.
• Understanding the reason for its occurrence leads the solution of countering the problem and guide the organization in a progressive direction.
Negative way
• Mis-understanding will happen when an organization has to many cultures on the different behaviours. Such as, advising a Malay worker to producing pork meat.
• Employee will fight for the status in work depends on how much the other employee’s effort
• Less candidates will apply for the job offer when the organizational behaviour is too much on developing the reputation.

Reference:https://www.ukessays.com/essays/management/concepts-of-organizational-behaviour-management-essay.php

Question 4c)
Organizational Culture
– Organizational culture heavily influences new employee when they join the company.
– People strive to fit in the environment around them.
– If company culture encourages employees to speak up without fear, new employees to express their own idea.
– Example: If the Firefly doesn’t encourage employees overtime that will reduced employees work over the time

Reward Systems
– Award people that show up to work consistently.
– Giving to worker will let them be motivated to perform better.
– The reward system must be fair or else it will affect the company negatively.
– Example: Firefly will reward employees with an increase of wages or bonus.

Decision Making
– Organizational behaviour influence decisions making peoples make.
– Companies with robust, effective communication mechanisms enable managers and employees to make informed decisions, because they understand the business context.
– Example: Firefly will have a meeting with their shareholders to investigate what the latest trend is thus making decision according to it.

Change Management
– All companies must respond to changing market, thus organization must train new employees on technical stuff.
– Adapt to changing market will increase the sales dramatically
– Example: If Firefly adapt to the current trending, Firefly will be profit in long term.
?
Conclusion

Organisational behaviour is one of the important element that is needed to be taken note. Organizational Behaviour that applies in the many company brings different consequences. the consequences will lead the company to be better or worst.
Organizational Behaviour mainly applies on the employer to make them
knowledge toward improving an organization effectiveness.

Proposal
a) Company overview
Firefly is an airline that offers convenience and seamless service in short-haul air travel to their passengers. Firefly travel experience is simple and aims to set the standard for service with their commitment to deliver hassle-free regional connectivity to their passengers.

b) Company history
Firefly airline launched on 3 April 2007. Its head office is in Petaling Yaya, Selangor. It claims to be the first community airline in Malaysia.

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c) Legal structure and ownership
Firefly airline is operated by Flyfirefly Sdn Bhd in 2007 now formerly known as MAS Sdn Bhd. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of Malaysia Airlines Bhd.

d) Location and facilities
It operates from two hubs, Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport from Subang and Penang International Airport.

e) Mission Statement
Firefly mission statement is to strengthen their footprint by offering exceptional services and sustaining the profitability of their company above industry average. During the process of dominate their routes, they also take pride in aligning their business model and work culture to their social conscience.

f) Management team
Firefly has a separate management apart from its parent company, Malaysia Airlines. Firefly focuses on serving Malaysia as well as Indonesia, Singapore and Thailand. Idris Jala, Malaysia Airlines’ managing director. By end-2018, Firefly, the sole turboprop operator in Changi Airport will move to Seletar Airport as Changi Airport wants to focus more on their jet operations.

Reference: http://www.fireflyz.com.my/about/company-profile?
Question 1a)
Organization’s culture
• It is defined as the underlying beliefs, assumptions, values and ways of interacting that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization.
• It includes an organization’s expectations, experiences, philosophy, as well as the values that guide member behaviour, and to expressed in member self-image, inner workings, interactions with the outside, and written and unwritten rules that have been developed over time and are considered valid.
• Organization’s culture includes the organization’s vision, values, norms, systems, symbols, language, assumption, beliefs, and habits
• In a simple way, organizational culture is “the way things are done around here” stated by Deal ; Kennedy in year 2000.
• Organizational culture affects the way people and groups interact with each other, with clients, and with stakeholders.
• Organizational culture may influence how much employees identify with their organization.
Organization’s politics
• Organization’s politics play a large role in how most business function and are run.
• Organization’s politics consist of self-serving actions taken by an individual or group.
• It is informal, unofficial, and sometimes behind-the-scenes efforts to sell ideas, influence an organization, increase power, or achieve other targeted objectives.
• Without political awareness and skill, a company will face the inevitable prospect of becoming immersed.
Organization’s power
• A manager will have the power to rewards or punish the employee.
• It will influence the employee mood to work.
• Manager still have the power to control the employee by doing any task.
• Having power and using power is a different thing, because the power that manager have they might use it wrongly.
• Also, they have legitimate power which is power that comes from one’s organization role or position.
• They have a position or role to support them using the power.

Reference: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/power-influence-politics-workplace-19058.html

Question 1b)
Culture influence an organization
• It highly influences in the behaviour and performance of individuals and team in achieving an organization’s mission, vision, purpose and the goals.
• This element can make employees to become the high-performance employees.
• Also improve the productivity of their company through mission, vision, purpose and the goals.
• Example: Firefly’s train every single employee to improve themselves and only select the most potential employees.
• Organization’s culture defined as the tradition and value of employees.
• All the employees are encouraged to focus on excellence in communication in Firefly company.
• It will help the organization to maintain their market position.

Political influence an organization
• Malaysia is a more ethnic country in the world with many different religious beliefs.
• In Malaysia, we have three main religions which is Malay, Chinese and Indian.
• We can easily say that the main politics affecting in Malaysia of an organization are religious issues.
• Example: Most of the company will give Malay peoples to have the priority right for every services.
• But in an organization, everyone must avoid discussing the politics and religion issues.

Power influence an organization
• Formal power and personal power can directly influence a leadership in an organization.
• Such as reward power, legitimate power, referent power, expert power and coercive power.
• Example: Firefly apply those power for their company to make sure all the employees can have a better performance while working in the company.

Reference: https://www.ukessays.com/essays/politics/influence-power-politics-and-control.php?
Question 2a)
Content theories
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
• The theory is talking about the needs of human in 5 levels.
• The 5 levels include physiological needs, safe, love and belongs, self-esteem and self-actualization.
• An organization such as Firefly can apply this theory to improve and increase the employees’ motivation.
• Firefly should give a more flexible working hour to employees.
• Firefly should give a high job security to employees.
• As the motivation is increased and improved, the goal of organization which is to increase the productivity of Firefly able to be achieved.

Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
• It explains that motivating factors which increases job satisfaction and motivation and hygiene factors cause individuals unhappy and dissatisfied on jobs.
• Firefly should always apply motivating factors and prevent the hygiene factors occurring in the company.
• It may able to increase the motivation and job satisfaction of employees.
• Thus, it may help Firefly to achieve the goal of organization effectively.

McClelland’s Theory of Needs
• The theory explained that the dominant motivator depends on culture and life.
• The 3 motivators are achievement, affiliation and power.
• Firefly management should reward or provide a higher position of company for those who have higher achievement.
• Through this reward systems, the employees may have high motivation and always compete between each other to get a higher achievement.

Alderfer’s ERG Theory
• Alderfer distinguished 3 classes of needs which are existence, relatedness and growth.
• Motivation of employees in Firefly may able to be improved when they get the needs based on Alderfer’s ERG Theory.
• Firefly should provide these needs to employees to enable the goals of company achieved more effectively.

?
Process theories
Skinner’s reinforcement theory
• An organization such as Firefly should always praise, appreciation or give other reward to increase the possibility of the rewarded behaviours’ repetition.
• Firefly management should reduce punishment toward employees.
• If Firefly able to apply this theory a positive behaviour and environment able to be formed which is one of the goal of Firefly.

Victor Vroom’s expectancy theory
• It emphasises that motivation is determined by expectancy, instrumentality and valence.
• The employees’ motivation able to increase as the management of Firefly able to apply on the employees.
• Thus, the goal which is high productivity able to be achieved,

Adam’s equity theory
This theory emphasises that people can be motivated as they are treated equitable.
• Firefly should treat all employees same and there is no discrimination.
• In inequity exits, it may reduce his/her workforce.
• It may cause the output of Firefly reduce and the goal of Firefly might be though to be achieved.

Locke’s goal setting theory
• It emphasises that setting specific and challenging performance goals can determine motivation.
• Firefly should set suitable goals or mission to let the employees feel challenging.
• It may raise up the motivation of employees and able to achieve the goals.

Motivational technique
Using intrinsic rewards
• Firefly should provide intrinsic rewards to employees to raise the motivation.
• Firefly can provide challenging and interesting work for them.
• It may able to increase productivity and the goal of organization might be able to be achieved.

Using extrinsic rewards
• Firefly can offer extrinsic reward to employees to increase the motivation.
• Firefly can provide a higher pay or bonus.
• It creates a competitive environment among employees to compete for the rewards.

?
Share profit
• It can offer to those who work for Firefly for many years.
• Firefly can offer them with some shares.
• It able to let them to give out their opinion during annual general meeting.
• The employees might have control power towards the company.

Training and development
• Firefly can offer those employees with some training programmes.
• It may able to increase their motivation if they attend course which able to raise motivation and develop new skills.
• These programmes able to increase their current performance and the goal of Firefly able to be achieved.

Reference:https://www.tankonyvtar.hu/hu/tartalom/tamop412A/2011-0023_Psychology/030300.scorml
Question 2b)
Motivational Theories
• The behaviour of an organization can be formed or affected by using a motivational theory.
• Motivational theories will influence the motivation and behaviour of employees in an organization.
• Management can raise the employees’ motivation and build positive behaviour by using the motivational theory.
• It will help the management to improve employees’ performance.
• For example, Firefly using Hierarchy of Needs Theory to improve motivation of employees and form positive working environment for them.

Motivational Models
• An organization can use motivational models to form positive behaviours among employees.
• Motivational models can provide useful strategic for Firefly in improving motivation of employees.
• Motivational models will provide an example to management in building employees’ behaviour.
• The models will help management to determine what should be done and what should not be done.
• For example, Firefly uses motivation-hygiene factors models to build strategic in improving the performance and productivity.

Motivational Concept
• Organization such as Firefly able to use motivational concept to build positive and motivated behaviour among employees.
• The motivational concept provides the factors that able to determine the behaviour of an individual.
• It will provide management a good plan in improving the behaviour of employees.
• As the behaviour of employees be improved, it will increase the company’s productivity and profitability.
• For example, Firefly can use motivational concept to know what needs to be prepared to improve behaviour of the employees.

Reference: https://www.slideshare.net/rmullenger/motivation-models?
Question 2c)
Relationship 1: Internal political
Culture
• Culture of an organization is grouping with those who are powerful in an organization.
• The employees will only give good attitude foe those who is powerful in the organization.
Politics
• It may lead to the occur of internal political among employees.
• Managers might only promote “his people” only.
Power
• As the result, it may cause those who is at higher position or have more power may have more people to follow him.
Motivation
• It may lead to the motivational in an organization become lower.
• It may cause the productivity of an organization reduces.
• For example, there is internal politics in Firefly. It leads to the occurrence of bias and occur of unfair in rewarding. It causes the employee’s motivation to become slow and lower down the productivity.
Recommendation
• The management should practise the separation of power in organization.
• Performance of an individual might be measured by more people.
• A more fair and acceptable result will be given through practicing this system.

Relationship 2: Discrimination on female workers
Culture
• It may cause the male workers not respect on female workers.
• They may not recognise the contribution of female workers.
Politic
• It causes the numbers of manager or supervisor might become more than female.
• Male leader might be more popular compared to female.
Power
• It leads to male workers or male manager may have more power compare to female workers.
Motivation
• It may cause the female workers feel sad.
• There is lack of motivation among female workers.
• It may lead to high motivation among male workers.
• For example, if Firefly is facing discrimination on female. It leads the incident of female is unable to be recognised in the company. Female workers unable to receive fair reward.
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Recommendation
• Management should give more chance for female workers to perform.
• More female workers should be promoted, and their contribution should be recognised
• A project tam should be built by male and female employees.
• More female employees can hold higher and important position of an organization.

Relationship 3: Discrimination on races
Culture
• The employees are separated themselves based on skin colour and races.
• The human resource department might only recruit employees based on races and not ability.
• As they have a concept that this race of people is not trustable.
Politic
• The manager will only promote those who is same races and culture.
• The internal politic which is only give chance for those “favourite person”.
Power
• The higher position in organization might be only holder by only one races.
Motivation
• Motivation for those who is different races will become low as they know that they might not be promoted whether the performance is good or not.
• It might be lead to high motivation for those same races employees.
• For example, if the important position in the Firefly is hold by only one type of races of people and they will only promote the employees who is same culture and races, it leads low motivation and productivity among employees.
Recommendation
• Important position in an organization should be built by different races.
• A team of project should be built by more types of races of people.
• Company should recruit employees based on their ability and not based on races.

Reference: https://www.slideshare.net/rmullenger/motivation-models?
Question 3a)
Introduction
The definition of the team is a small number of complementary skilled employees to committed to a common purpose, common performance goals and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.
Effective team
• It is defined as one of the many ways to organize employees’ teamwork.
• An effective team has certain features that enable team members to work more efficiently.
• An effective team develops ways to share leadership roles and ways to share responsibilities for their work.
• The characteristics of effective team are communication, goals and leaderships.
• In an effective team, all members must communicate among each other to make sure that the task can be complete perfectly.
• Every work performance will be evaluated and status of ongoing tasks within the meetings will be discuss as well.
• All the employees must attend all the meetings to receive the feedback from the work tasks and discuss how the employees should correct the mistake that have been made.
• In addition, a leader of a team had to make sure that all the employees can get the clear information when they are all members of the team.
• Firefly’s employees have a very good of communication skill because they are all in services industry and as a flight company, they must know how to communicate well.
• An effective team must have a clear goal as well.
• A clear goal is very important for an effective team.
Ineffective team
• Ineffective team are either not clear on what matters or simply not able to able-willing to rule some stuff out.
• They are suck at communicating what matters.
• All the fine sounding values, beliefs, and behaviours that they talk about they don’t live-model-embody it.
• For ineffective leaders find all kinds of reasons and excuses for not dealing with the real issues and instead spend their time on what they are comfortable with.
• All the ineffective leaders are drunk on their own importance and thus push their views, their agenda, on to the favoured few that they invite to the conversation.
• They will only focus on what matters to them and their favoured constituency.

Reference: http://www.eventus.co.uk/effective-vs-ineffective-teams/

Question 3b)
Relevant team and group development theories to support the development of dynamic cooperation.
• The definition of group development is that when an organization or group is formed. A group development has experienced a certain degree of predictability from a process.
• To collect individuals into a cohesive group that works for a common cause we need group development to proceed.
• Engaging atmosphere by encouraging collaboration, teamwork, interdependence and confidence-building between team members created by group development.

Tuckman’s Stage model
• It describes five linear stages of group development which are forming, storming, norming, performance and adjourning.
• In the forming stage, mostly employees are active and politic, but some of them are anxious because they have not fully understood what they should do to achieve the organizational goals.
• In second stage, we call it as storming. The team members will fight for each other’s arguments about the group structure, which often emotional charged, indicating that the group is gaining the seat.
• In this stage have some characteristics which is lack of cohesive, subjectively, inconsistency and failure.
• Third stage is norming. In this stage, people will start to resolve their differences and appreciate their colleagues. They start to share their ideas, feelings and giving feedback to each other. But still the conflict agreement that ends during norming step is there.
• Next stage is performing. When all the members work toward their common goals, the confidence will grow both individually and with other members of the group. They focused its energies and attention on its goal, displaying higher rates of task orientation, decision making and problem-solving.
• And the last stage of the group development is adjourning. Once the tasks given are completed, all of them will separated themselves from each other.
• In addition, the groups conduct annual reviews and implementation of the role conversion plan and confirm the contributions of members.
• All of them will also share their own feeling and opinion about the results of the tasks or maybe the operation of tasks that happened.

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Wheelan’s integrated model of group development
• In this integrated model has three phases.
• Phase I, a team approaches the behavioural patterns of its project at the first meeting.
• Because of the members may not be aware of the purpose and the information may seem a little or no noticeable progress.
• In the midpoint level, it will proceed to team transformation.
• They know what to do and how to do their jobs then allows them to take advantages of the step-by-step learning they have done.
• Lastly is Phase II. This is the last phase that the members move out from the midpoint level.
• All the team members will leave through the positive and negative consequences of past choices when a team makes last minute effort.

Reference: https://the-happy-manager.com/articles/teamwork-theory/
Question 4a)
Concepts of organizational behaviour
• A field of study that investigates the impact of the individuals or group in the organizations.
• Understanding the interaction of the individuals in the organizations.
• Concepts of organization behaviour contains 3 levels of analysis: individuals, groups and organizations.
• The concepts of OB are to study of how people act in organisation and help to suggest ways to improving organisational problems in general.
• Behaviour of the individuals is the action that communicates and exhibits the character, it is also a reaction of something under specified circumstances.
• OB can have classified as an action or attitudes of individuals or groups toward each other or the organization that it may cause influences on the functioning and performance of the organization.
• Just as Robbins says that OB is a field of study that investigates the impact that individual, groups and structure have on behaviour within organization.
• For an example, Firefly company contains the concepts of behaviour of respect the culture of its passengers, such as providing halal food to Malaysia citizens.

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Philosophies of organizational behaviour
• In the philosophies of Kautilaya’s Arthsastra toward OB relationship with friend, superior, subordinate was born, it occurs the wage rate and difference, and the values in organization.
• In year 1800, Robert Owen emphasize the human factor in organization.
• In year 1880, Frederiek Taylor decides to time each worker at the Midvale Steel Company, his view of the future becomes highly accurate
• In year 1922, Max Weber gives the concepts of Bureaucracy regarded as the abstract system for rational solution of management problems without the frictions caused by human errors and emotions.
• In year 1932, Elton Mayo becomes the first to question the behavioural assumption of scientific management. The studies concluded the human factors were more important than physical conditions in motivating employee to greater productivity.
• However, the OB in the modern era changes everything. In 1954, the Hierarchy of Needs provides the framework for gaining employees commitment. Leadership and Management becomes more efficient, Drucker writes the 5 basic roles of managers becomes the main goal and key point for the organization t be successful.
• In 1959, Hygiene and Motivational Factors developed by Frederick Herzberg except it more closely related to works, it is based on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.
• In 1960s, the organization development became the systematic application of behavioural science knowledge at various levels
• In 1990, Learning organization discipline developed by Peter Senge described about the organization as an organism with the capacity to enhance its capabilities and shape of its own future.

Reference: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3123547/

Question 4b)
Positive way
• Effective management in the organization brings the success of an organization, behaviour of people within an organization is governed by their ideas, feelings and activities.
• Certain employees may be compassionate and helpful towards their co-workers which helps to create a supportive work culture. The selfless attitude become a result of employee’s faith in the management.
• Understanding the reason for its occurrence leads the solution of countering the problem and guide the organization in a progressive direction.
Negative way
• Mis-understanding will happen when an organization has to many cultures on the different behaviours. Such as, advising a Malay worker to producing pork meat.
• Employee will fight for the status in work depends on how much the other employee’s effort
• Less candidates will apply for the job offer when the organizational behaviour is too much on developing the reputation.

Reference:https://www.ukessays.com/essays/management/concepts-of-organizational-behaviour-management-essay.php

Question 4c)
Organizational Culture
– Organizational culture heavily influences new employee when they join the company.
– People strive to fit in the environment around them.
– If company culture encourages employees to speak up without fear, new employees to express their own idea.
– Example: If the Firefly doesn’t encourage employees overtime that will reduced employees work over the time

Reward Systems
– Award people that show up to work consistently.
– Giving to worker will let them be motivated to perform better.
– The reward system must be fair or else it will affect the company negatively.
– Example: Firefly will reward employees with an increase of wages or bonus.

Decision Making
– Organizational behaviour influence decisions making peoples make.
– Companies with robust, effective communication mechanisms enable managers and employees to make informed decisions, because they understand the business context.
– Example: Firefly will have a meeting with their shareholders to investigate what the latest trend is thus making decision according to it.

Change Management
– All companies must respond to changing market, thus organization must train new employees on technical stuff.
– Adapt to changing market will increase the sales dramatically
– Example: If Firefly adapt to the current trending, Firefly will be profit in long term.
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Conclusion

Organisational behaviour is one of the important element that is needed to be taken note. Organizational Behaviour that applies in the many company brings different consequences. the consequences will lead the company to be better or worst.
Organizational Behaviour mainly applies on the employer to make them
knowledge toward improving an organization effectiveness.

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