Project Management Using PERT and CPM
Project Management Using PERT and CPM
Critical Path Method (CPM) is a technique used by managers in planning and managing their projects. Planning for large-scale projects is important to achieve the desired results and managers should integrate the use of Critical Path Method to guarantee an effective and a successful project (Rosenblatt, 2014). Critical Path Method involves researching and analyzing detailed information related to the tasks to be undertaken to successfully compete a project. This may involve a description of the tasks as well as the time required to complete the tasks (Rosenblatt, 2014). Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) is also important and useful in the planning of large-scale projects. This technique provides important information related to a project, which may include the resources required, time estimates to complete certain tasks, and the required performance standards. This technique is useful in evaluating projects and is widely used in the public sector (Rosenblatt, 2014).
For What Applications in Government or Non-Profit Organizations Do You See PERT and CPM Being Particularly Useful
PERT can be used in networking applications in government resource planning. Government projects involve other subunits in different government levels, which must work collaboratively to ensure the successful implementation of a certain project (Meredith, Shafer, & Mantel, 2017). PERT can be used to avoid diverse variations in the use of resources and time variations. PERT will enable a successful and well networked program and minimal differences in the project requirements. Government applications, which involve construction services of government structures, can benefit from the application of PERT technique (Meredith, Shafer, & Mantel, 2017). PERT is an important technique that can be used in the planning of works, controlling, monitoring, and evaluation of the execution of large-scale projects. Large-scale projects involve complex and diverse variable resources, which include time, labor, and costs (Meredith, Shafer, & Mantel, 2017).
PERT can enable the government is able to control and monitor these important aspects. PERT provides information regarding a project’s scheduling, which involves the sequence and time constraints of a certain project and what necessary strategies are required to enable successful completion of a project (Meredith, Shafer, ; Mantel, 2017). CPM can be used by non-profit organizations in resource planning which may include planning of projects, which involves analyzing the expected costs of service delivery in the implementation of projects (Meredith, Shafer, ; Mantel, 2017). Government project managers in scheduling, analysing, and controlling their projects can use CPM. This technique will increase the probability of successful satisfactory results. The critical path analysis will determine the important items and other activities useful to accomplish the project (Meredith, Shafer, ; Mantel, 2017).
How Does PERT Process Lend Itself to Program Evaluation beyond the Initial Project Development Phase of a Program or Policy?
The PERT process provides an estimate for a project activity at the initial project development phase. In the PERT technique, a line represents each activity and a node represents the completion of an activity (Reid ; Sanders, 2015). As the project progresses, the estimated times are replaced with the actual times used to accomplish the activity. This provides a background for comparisons to be done and determination of the necessary steps required to address the time and resource differences (Reid ; Sanders, 2015). This evaluation helps the project to remain at the projected goals. The evaluation involves an analysis of the expected results versus the actual results, which determines the difference, which is known as the slack (Reid ; Sanders, 2015). Strategies to address the slack are implemented to enable the project back on its track.
Liabilities or Risks of Using PERT and CPM
One of the liabilities of using PERT and CPM is that although the techniques give the expected completion times of a project, the time variations are based on normal situations and unforeseen events are not taken into account (Meredith, Shafer, ; Mantel, 2017). These events may affect the determined time variations. When things do not go as expected, the expected time may be affected negatively affecting the plans made by the organization (Meredith, Shafer, ; Mantel, 2017). Another weakness of using the PERT and CPM is that these techniques rely on past data and formulas, which may not be accurate in providing accurate information (Rosenblatt, 2014). Due to the changing environments, past data may give wrong predictions, which may negatively affect an organization’s planning. Some projects involve very diverse and multidimensional activities which the PERT and CPM may be ineffective in providing accurate estimates or consume a lot of time in designing these kind of CPMs or PERTs (Rosenblatt, 2014).
Meredith, J. R., Shafer, S. M., & Mantel, S. J. (2017). Project management in practice. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Reid, R. D., & Sanders, N. R. (2015). Operations Management. New York: Wiley.
Rosenblatt, H. J. (2014). Systems analysis and design. Boston, MA: Course Technology Cengage Learning.