PREFACEIn order to properly arrange the format of the topic, this paper unfolds in three parts.
The first part is introductory in which I will write about the general understanding of thetopic, its background, its historical overview, characteristics and the most important impactsto history of architecture. In the second part, I will illustrate some examples of ”WhiteArchitecture in 21st century” that have been designed by different architects and at differentplaces of the world. Moreover, I will discuss the examples regarding the main topic andintegrate it to history of Architecture.
The final part will welcome us to briefly sum up anddraw the general and particular issue of the topic. ASLAN4IntroductionDefinition of the TopicI want to first start off with definition of the ”Minimalism”. Minimalism is anart/design movement that started in the 20th century.
Minimalism, is a concept not only inarchitecture, but also other art and design fields. Today, minimalism is also popular as alifestyle.In other words, I can explain of ”Minimalism” is that ; Eating less food is called adiet. When you’re on diet, you restrict yourself to small amounts of food for medical reasonsor to lose or maintain weight. When architecture is on diet, it is called minimalism.Minimalist architecture is restricted to fewer elements to achieve the most.White color isusually preferred on building facades because White color expresses open and neutral. ASLAN5GM1 HouseThe sensuality of the solid lines, large windows, sliding doors, metal structures,which generates large spans and generous ruffles, finishes without unnecessary frills andthe”WHITE” color on floors, walls and ceilings highlight the basic concepts that are evidentin this work; The integration of nature (wind, light, water, vegetation) as elements that bringus closer to our essence.
Geometry and proportion, understood as the contribution of man tothe landscape through the rationalization of forms.1?1″Residence in Colombia Displaying a Minimalist Design Approach: GM1 House.” Freshome.
com, 21 Mar. 2012,freshome.com/2012/03/21/residence-in-colombia-displaying-a-minimalist-design-approach-gm1-house/.
Figure 1 Residence in Colombia Displaying aMinimalist Design Approach: GM1 HouseArchitects: GM ArquitectosLocation :Girardot, ColombiaProject Year : 2011Figure 2 Residence in Colombia Displaying aMinimalist Design Approach: GM1 House ASLAN6White HouseThe house extends over 3 levels; the entry is on the middle, ground level, where all theliving spaces flow around a courtyard, a sliced circle, a hint of a possible larger courtyard inan expanded field of scattered architectural objects and events.White concrete is popular with architects thanks to its pure, uniform appearance,offering a less brutal alternative to board-marked and raw concrete. It is created by combiningmaterials with lower iron, chromium and manganese levels.2?2″The White House Prahran / Nervegna Reed Architecture PH Architects.” ArchDaily, 28 Mar. 2011,www.archdaily.com/122704/the-white-house-prahran-nervegna-reed-architecture-ph-architects.
Figure 3 The White House Prahran / NervegnaReed Architecture + PH Architects? Architects :Nervegna Reed Architecture , phArchitects? Location : AustraliaFigure 4 The White House Prahran /Nervegna Reed Architecture + PH Architects ASLAN7Arches BoulogneFrench firm ”Antonini Darmon” has completed a social housing block near Paris,featuring a White Concrete facade surrounded on all sides by rows of arch-frontedbalconies.This building has been built in 2016.White concrete, implemented in several ways, is the material connection between thebuildings in the project. They are also connected through a common garden, located in thecentre of the Macrolot B5.3″Despite the central location of the building the second skin also provides privacy, bypreventing visibility of the interior from the outside,” said the architects.”?3″Arches Boulogne / Antonini Darmon.” ArchDaily, 13 June 2016, www.archdaily.
com/789255/arches-boulogne-antoninidarmon.Figure 5 Arches Boulogne / Antonini Darmon Architects: Antonini DarmonLocationBillancourt, FranceProject Year :2016Figure 6 Arches Boulogne / Antonini Darmon ASLAN8Moliner HouseThe project and all it is elements like site wall, even the birch trees are plainly white,contrasting starkly with it’s gray and muted urban context. Entering the compound must belike entering another world, with a metaphysical garden that seamlessly transitions into theinterior, a “cloudy” library on the second floor and cavernous bedrooms in the basement.
Theproject appears remarkably calm and at the same time surprises with distinctly differentiatedspaces.Text description provided by the architects. To build a house for a poet. To make ahouse for dreaming, living and dying. A house in which to read, to write and to think.Weraised high walls to create a box open to the sky, like a nude, metaphysical garden, withArchitects :Alberto Campo BaezaLocation : Zaragoza, SpainProject Year :2006Figure 7 Moliner House / Alberto Campo Baeza ASLAN9concrete walls and floor. To create an interior world.
We dug into the ground to plant leafytrees.4Three levels were established. The highest for dreaming. The garden level for living.The deepest level for sleeping.The all building (Interior and exterior) are composed of Whitefacade.The figure 8 which is shown above this is for living, the garden with southern light,sunlight.
A space that is all garden, with transparent walls that bring together inside andoutside. And for sleeping, perhaps dying, the deepest level. The bedrooms below, as if in acave. Dreaming, living, dying. The house of the poet.
5Light from the north pours through the glazed walls in the interior cube , reflectingfrom the white concrete floors and bouncing on the “galeria white” walls. At the lowest?4″Moliner House – Zaragoza Building | Spanish House Design.” e-Architect, 11 July 2017, www.e-architect.co.uk/spain/molinerhouse.?5″Moliner House in Spain by Alberto Campo Baeza Architects.” Design Milk, 24 Feb.
2010, design-milk.com/moliner-house-inspain-by-alberto-campo-baeza-architects/.Figure 8 interior of Moliner House ASLAN10point.the bedrooms, below ground, as in a cave. At the highest point, the library: a place fordreaming.6The building shape cleverly articulates urban spaces and emphasizes the surroundingurban fabric.
The facade underlines the idiosyncrasy of the building shape with hexagonalapertures, smaller on the outside, but tapering on the inside to increase the illusion oftransparency and create a white space filled with light.The architectural expression of the exterior is found in the interior. From the entrance,one perceives the entirety of interior volume. The interior organization is of a great clearness:the various functions are distributed on three levels plus a basement for the movie theatres.7?6″Moliner House / Alberto Campo Baeza.” ArchDaily, 28 Mar. 2010, www.
archdaily.com/53984/moliner-house-alberto-campobaeza.?7″Lons le Saunier Médiathèque & Cinémas: French Library & Cinema.” e-Architect, 4 Mar. 2017, www.earchitect.co.uk/france/lons-le-saunier-building.
Lons le Saunier MediathequeArchitects :Du Besset-LyonArchitectesLocation Lons-le-Saunier, FranceProject Year : 2012Figure 9 Lons le Saunier Mediatheque / du BessetLyonArchitectes ASLAN11Museo Internacional del BarrocoThis is a meseum which is located in Mexico, This facade will also receive night timeprojections of images related to current exhibitions, which also illuminate the museum andmake it stand out from a distance.The structure composed of precast walls and slabs were alsodeveloped. The walls are precast on the exterior and cast in-situ on the interior. The precastFigure 10 Lons le Saunier Mediatheque /du Besset-Lyon ArchitectesFigure 11 Museo Internacional delBarroco / Toyo Ito & AssociatesArchitects :Toyo Ito & AssociatesLocation : MexicoProject Year :20152016 ASLAN12part, consisting of two panels of 65 mm white concrete joined as a sandwich panel, also actsas lost formwork whilst simultaneously controlling the final finish8The exposed White concrete has a bush-hammered texture, making it easy to rectifyany defects to the finishes on site.
The walls function as structural load-bearing walls with atotal thickness of 36 cm. (Including the 2 precast concrete elements). The slab is a 70 cm deeplightweight composite with recycled hollow polyethylene (PET) spheres and semiprefabricatedprecast slabs for easy and fast assembly.As part of the structural strategy, the museum is a single rigid volume, giving thebuilding earthquake resistant qualities.
The foundation transmits vertical loads on the groundfiller compacted soils. The foundation was built as a strip footing with an adjusted depthaccording to the requirements of outdoor spaces.?8″Museo Internacional del Barroco / Toyo Ito & Associates.” ArchDaily, 24 Apr. 2016,www.archdaily.com/786104/museo-internacional-del-barroco-toyo-ito-and-associates-architects.
The inside, cast on site with greyconcrete, merge the piecestogether with the reinforcement,producing a monolithic wall.Figure 12 Museo Internacional delBarroco / Toyo Ito & Associates ASLAN13ConclusionAs we see in the examples, architects from different part of the world havesuccessfully collaborated in designing temples at the different locations. While designing thiskind of White buildings. they meliorate in designing a building that would welcome andembrace everyone.
As a result, Architecture in 21st century is a still is a high level ofdevelopment,also international understanding of modernism minimalism and classicism hasbeen employed richly because of understanding of ”White Architecture in 21st Century” . Ialso want to point out that in these examples there quotations from some historical buildings,which may be perceived as Classicism.Last but not least, integrity of structural design has been mainly shaped by naturalinspiration and implementation of the inspiration is almost flawless