2. Rajya Sabha and may nominate two

2. Legislative Powers: He may address either House of Parliament; send messages to either House concerning those matters which he wants to be reconsidered by the House. He can summon and prorogue either House of Parliament or dissolve the Lok Sabha, and order fresh elections. He can call joint sittings of the two Houses to resolve their differences over a bill. The first session of Parliament after each general election for the Lok Sabha and the first session of each year begin with an address of the President. Any bill passed by Parliament must receive his assent, before it becomes an Act.

He is empowered to make regulations for the Union Territories. He can promulgate an Ordinance when Parliament is not in session. He nominates 12 members to the Rajya Sabha and may nominate two Anglo-Indians to the Lok Sabha.

3. Financial Powers: No money bill or demand for giant can be introduced or moved in Parliament unless it has been recommended by the President. 4. Judicial Powers: He has the power to grant pardon, reprieve or remit of punishment or commute death sentences. 5. Emergency Powers: In any emergency caused by war, aggression, or armed rebellion or internal disturbance or by the failure of the constitutional machinery or by financial instability, the President can proclaim a state of emergency, and he can take under his direct charge the administration of any State of India.

The powers seem to be formidable. But, it must be remembered, these are only theoretical powers of the President. In fact, all these powers are exercised by the President on the advice of the Cabinet, and the advice of the Cabinet is binding on the President. If in the Lok Sabha no party commands an absolute majority, the President has a real choice while appointing the Prime Minister. In this way he can determine the very complexion of the ministry.


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