POLLUTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT – the introduction of new, not characteristic for it physical, chemical and biological agents or excess of their natural level.
MAIN TYPES OF POLLUTION
(thermal, noise, electromagnetic, light, radioactive)
(heavy metals, pesticides, plastics and other chemicals)
(biogenic, microbiological, genetic)
Physical pollution is pollution associated with changes in the physical parameters of the environment. Depending on which parameters exceed the MPC, the following types of physical contamination are distinguished:
– radiation ..
Temperature (thermal) pollution.
An important meteorological element of the environment is the temperature, especially when combined with high or very low humidity and wind speed: when the wind is strong and the air humidity is high, the cold days seem even colder (this contributes to the person’s overcooling, total freezing or frostbite), and hotter more hot. At high ambient temperature, increased humidity causes discomfort, the excretory function is disrupted, and the efficiency of heat recovery by thermal conductivity and heat radiation decreases. Under such conditions, there is a threat of overheating of the body with a simultaneous violation of the function of blood circulation and respiration.
excess of the content of chemicals over the natural level or the emergence of new chemical compounds as a result of anthropogenic impact on the biosphere, causing a change in the natural chemical properties of the environment. Ecological disturbances caused by chemical pollution are manifested in the degradation of ecological systems, the reduction in the number and species diversity of plants and animals, and the decline in the productivity of forests and agricultural lands. As a result, the trophic chains that have developed during the evolution, and, consequently, the biocenosis, are destroyed, uncontrolled reproduction of stable forms of organisms (some insects, microorganisms) takes place. In particularly severe cases, complete degradation of the natural environment can occur, causing a transformation of the plant and animal life, up to the disappearance of native species
Biological pollution at various times contributed to the emergence of epidemics of plague and smallpox, fever in humans and various species of animals and birds. At different times, the following viruses represented and represented the danger:
• Ebola haemorrhagic fever;
• plague of cattle;
• rice pericaria;
• the Nepah virus;
• botulinum toxin;
• Chimera virus.
These viruses lead to the death of people and animals. As a result, the problem of biological contamination should be raised. If it is not stopped, then some virus can massively and in a short time destroy millions of animals, plants and people so quickly that the threat of chemical or radioactive contamination does not seem so strong.
The most dangerous pathogens of infectious diseases. They have different stability in the environment. Some are able to live outside the human body for only a few hours; being in the air, in the water, on different objects, they quickly perish. Others can live in the environment from several days to several years. For the third, the environment is a natural habitat. For the fourth – other organisms, for example wild animals or humans, are a place of conservation and reproduction.