Deforestation is the cutting of forests and trees where the land is thereafter converted to farming use or may remain idle and in the end be degraded in ways such as soil erosion or desertification. Examples of deforestation include change of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use. Deforestation trees are mainly used for charcoal, housing and mainly furniture. Deforestation results in loss of trees and loss of rain. When deforestation is procured in a place, it results in increased human settlement, loss of earth cover and involves increased logging.
The trends that are involved include global warming, loss of rainfall which means reduced food supply, crop production, as well as the Amazon river’s dry.
The Social Domain Related to Deforestation and the Stake holders involved
Deforestation has been done for at least 10,000 years, people have destroyed the forests. In most developed countries the demand for forests has reduced nowadays; but in many tropical countries, they are the homes to about half of the remaining plantation forest. For instance, in Congo, with more tropical rain forests than any other country apart from Brazil, the deforestation is mostly driven by the peasants , whose number is about to double on top of that increasing world’s requirement for food and fuels from biological organisms adding even more to the high temperature. So does climate change. This is already happening in Canada, as well as in Australia, which forests have been destroyed by forest fires and droughts, which, in its turn, has greatly contributed to the climate change and global warming. Deforestation enriches those who are practicing it, but in the long run it destroys the planet in many ways and deprives it of its nature and beauty. The major stakeholders in the social domain are people involved in agriculture and infrastructure who have played a role of continuously depletion of the earth resources apart form development, growing and expansion of food resources as well also land for population settlement.
Political Domain and issues related to Regulation and implementation of Policies and the Position of the Brazilian Government.
In the political domain there is conflict in the effort to conserve the forests since some say the industrialization and urbanization have to take place first before conservation until Brazil provides jobs for people who are involved in cutting down trees, Between the years 2006-2009 the rate of deforestation has dramatically reduced to a mere 7,000sqkm which is majorly contributed to government action and also due to tumbling prices for agricultural products and in comparison to the rest of the world. It has taken solid steps in restoring its Amazon basin since they believe they lead in green technology. It is seen that the Government sometimes favors deforestation
Challenges of Economic Domain and its Effect on Growth
Some of Brazil’s challenges in the Economic domain towards creating and maintaining economic growth have been majorly experienced since the tight measures were put to curb deforestation. Some of the challenges include soya and beef prices rising towards the end of 2007 which brought about renewed spurt of hacking and burning. Fortunately this was reduced. Another incident of economic challenge was in May 2011 when the former environment secretary, Mator Grosson, was arrested over an allegation of logging scam.
Some ranches are also linked to illegal cutting of trees and also slavery which is another downside of Brazil’s economy. Although deforesters have been fined, only 10% of the fined pay the penalties .This gives an opportunity for impunity to grab more land .
The result of this is that a chance for land amnesty sooner or later is going to occur. On the other hand, the inevitable criticism from landlords and their political counterparts has begun. Their argument is that there should be a reduction in the discussed private land area that should be covered by trees. This sounds unreasonable. Brazil will be holding a presidential poll next month and the front-runner, Dilma Rousseff, has a record of favoring destructive infrastructure projects in the Amazon and these are the major factors that are related to the downward trend of Brazil’s economic growth.
Business Domain and Related Industries and REDD’S Impact by Contribution of Incentives
Main industries that are involved in this domain are the cultivation in Brazil in the Amazon of sugarcane, a source of bioethanol, demand for which is soaring with time. Another business is Braskem, a big Brazilian petrochemical firm, which has developed a technique to make ethylene from bioethanol and will be opening the world’s first “green plastic” plant. Rebrand of Brazil’s economy as an eco-friendly producer could give it dominance of the most lucrative markets for its many agricultural products.
REDD which in full can be seen as the main international effort (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation), which gives incentives by paying people in developing countries to leave trees standing. It is also increasingly becoming common for governments and companies to pay for forest and other ecosystem services. For instance, to protect its watershed, New York pays farmers in the Catskills not to develop their land. REDD schemes aspire to do this on a much larger scale.
REDD’S incentives are paid to places where the Amazon countries with the most important forests include some of the world’s most deforested places.
Stakeholders and their Contribution to the success of Reforms
Stakeholders have majorly contributed by being in the initiative to support green energy and have come up with new initiative of planting trees.
Brazilian Point of View on Natural Protection and Economic Growth and their effects on Environmental Regulations
Comment on Brazil’s trade-offs between natural protection and economic growth Brazil can take credit since its deforestation rate slumped (Ki-moon, Ban 1).
This is mostly attributed to the Amazon beef campaign which majorly occurred between the years 2006-2009 where the level of deforestation has reduced to a mere 7,000sq km which was majorly contributed by the tumbling prices for agricultural products. In the economical growth Brazil’s big benefit is its abundance of water, land and sunlight, together with an increasing capability to utilize the resources to best gain. Brazil receives about 45% of its power from sources that are renewable and has been successfully developing green technology (Ki-moon, Ban 1). One great expertise is the Braskem technology, It is one of the biggest petrochemical firms in Brazil, It has come up with a method to make ethylene from bioethanol which is an organic compound and will be able to open the world’s first “green plastic” firm. This would rebrand Brazil as an eco-friendly producer and would give it supremacy over the most lucrative markets in the agricultural products industries. Most households and businesses make a living using forest products which affects Brazil’s efforts to tighten the environmental regulations since this greatly kills the efforts to tighten the regulations because those in the law are the major offenders like the permanent secretary and the presidential contender who is seen to be bringing destructive laws to change (Ki-moon, Ban 1).
Distribution of National and Local Power towards Environmental Reforms
In Brazil there are excellent forest operators, but they require help. The Government would like to keep the more valuable forests to themselves while delegate other forests to the locals. Yet both share three features such as an emphasis on conserving the forests; prohibition on selling or clearing of forests; at times the less change is delivered by the government than what they initially promised (Ki-moon, Ban 1). That is due to the efforts by the government to claw back regulations by use of myriad ways. Some of the ways are such as collecting firewood and hunting may be restricted. They may make it hard to obtain logging licenses and other permits .
This makes forest management more efficient if functions are divided. The government leads through law enforcement because without the government no action can be taken.
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