Perception of Filipino GenXers towards Male Makeup and their Identity
The Department of Communication
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Bachelor of Arts in Communication
Major in Advertising and Public Relations
Anne Louise C. Gomez
Marie Gabrielle F. Sipagan
Men’s consciousness of their personal appearance increases more, men have taken an active interest in looking better and smelling nicer in recent years. Between 1997 and 2002 global men’s cosmetics increased by 47%. During 2004 cosmetics market reached $10 billion, in France men’s cosmetics sales reached $42.16 million in 2003, it increased by 140% compared to 1998. The men’s cosmetics market in Britain has increased by eight times within the past seven years (“A Strategic overview,” 2007). Decades have passed since makeup companies has been trying to sell to men. The bigger challenge, is getting men to believe makeup can be manly. Some companies try to change makeup names into a manlier name – rebranding mascara to manscara, eyeliner to guyliner, foundation to tinted moisturizer. Makeup gives men “masculine benefits” by contouring a more pronounced jaw line, by attracting women, or by fixing so called “skin problems.” Male makeup vlogging is one of the most effective way of making men buy makeup. Men are providing makeup tutorials to other men via YouTube and other vlogging sites. Makeup is one of the most popular vlogging topics – and vlogs about makeup by male YouTubers such as Patrick Starrr, James Charles and Jeffree Star have over 6m subscribers between them. For male makeup vloggers, breaking out of traditional gender roles is a positive step, in a society where gender norms and expectations are firmly entrenched. But with this comes a cost: more pressures on men to look a certain way. According to Janoski (2018), male makeup will erase this gendered double standard of appearance. Adding to the pressures for men not only to be muscular and tall, but also to have no pores, wrinkles or skin blemishes. So, while male makeup may represent a way in which men are breaking out of gender norms, it also results in added pressure for men to look “perfect” to have flawless skin, strong eyebrows and sharp cheekbones.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
In order to manifest the related literature and studies, the following readings are revealed to substantiate the study. The researchers aim to establish an aligned and thorough explanation as proof for this study. To be able to do this, a review of related literature is provided and the following subsections were chosen to give justification to the topic.
Filipino Generation X. Those born within the years of 1965 – 1980, in the American context, are called the Generation X. They are usually professionals in mid-level positions (like in law firms) or are in management positions in corporate or legal settings. In the workplace, they are mostly individualistic, self-sustaining and inventive. Independence and reliability are of importance to them, while authority and set number of work-hours are some of the things that they hold in contempt. The disposition of this generation shows the transition of their economy, from manufacturing to service. They were growing up intertwined with technology, as they matured during the time of computers and adapted to technological tools in the workplace. (Kane, 2018) The Generation X is also known as the “kids of working moms and divorced parents,” and as adults, “marked by a sense of ennui,” directly quoted from Tan (2013). To add to that, they may also be the first age group that may not earn as much as their mothers and/or fathers.
According to Stephen Katz (2017), Generation X is defined by the demographic location straddling earlier Baby Boomers and later on Millennial Generation. However, Generation X received far less attention as a social field because of the general reluctance in the field of sociology to theorize about generations beyond static descriptive models. Generation X appeared independently in a small book by the same name, written in 1964 by the British journalists Jane Deverson and Charles Hamblett. Deverson was sent by Woman’s Own Magazine to interview teenagers about growing up. It was rejected by WOM for being too forthright about the rebellious youth culture.
According to Reisenwitz ; Iyer (2009), Generation X are credited with moving the Internet into the mainstream. Generation X professionals have a high preference for Web and e-mail business communication, getting quickly frustrated with financial service providers who cannot provide that service. The lack of brand loyalty by most Xers and Yers is possibly due to the fact that they were exposed to more promotions versus brand advertising while growing up. They will be brand loyal if they trust the brand, however, that loyalty may only last six to eight months. Generation Xers are communications and media savvy, entrepreneurial in spirit; they value self-development and cultural and global diversity in the organization. They are goal oriented and want to make an impact on their organization’s mission. They value a work/life balance and telecommuting or a compressed work week, although few can take advantage of these arrangements. Generation Xers are seeking a fast track, a unique work experience, and a changing environment. Otherwise, they will leave the organization. In fact, they change jobs every two to four years, sometimes holding more than one job at a time with more than one company at a time and changing careers several times during their working lives. The average Generation X worker has held about nine different jobs by the age of 32, in contrast to the traditional employee who worked 30 to 40 years at one firm. Freelance, temporary or contract work has given them the freedom to move among employers. Generation X is a reactive generation. Reactive tend to have little self-esteem, to be hedonistic and risk-seeking.
A local study of Helen Salvosa (2017) said that the generations are defined by the social, economic, political, and social events that occur during their formative years. We commonly hear the labels Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y. Baby boomers. Although these labels are now commonly used across the world, it is important to note that the categories are based on the collective memory, recollections and experiences were developed in the West and using western milestones. Salvosa found two generations in the workplace. One group appears to be defined by political events (Ferdinand Marcos administration, the bombing of Plaza Miranda, the First Quarter Storm, Martial Law, Assassination of Ninoy Aquino, 1986 EDSA I Revolution, Corazon Aquino Administration, Fidel Ramos Administration, Joseph Estrada Administration). Given these markers, we labeled it the political generation. On the other hand, the second cluster was labeled as the technology generation because their historical markers consist of technological trends such as the Internet, search engines, social networking and digital technology. These results are consistent with an earlier study by Fr. Sanjay Ignatius and myself that found two categories of Filipino Internet users – the digital immigrants and digital native.
According to Marga Manlapig (2017), modern Filipino workplace is where much of the intergenerational conflict comes into play. The set-up is virtually the same regardless of industry: senior and corporate executive management is invariably composed of Baby Boomers (born 1945-1965); middle management usually consists of Generation X (born 1966-1986); while Millennials (born 1986-1996; literally on the cusp of the Second Millennium) hold supervisory roles. This has caused many Generation Xers to chafe at the reins and rebel. Having grown up with an innate mistrust of authority in general due to numerous socio-political revolutions that erupted as they came of age and a personal sense of autonomy having grown up with two working parents and less parental supervision, the Gen X at work tends to be somewhat individualistic.
Paul Taylor and George Gao (2014) said that generation X has a gripe with pulse takers, zeitgeist keepers and population counters. We keep squeezing them out of the frame. They range in age from 34 to 49, which may be one reason they are so often missing from stories about demographic, social and political change. Gen Xers are book-ended by two much larger generations – the Baby Boomers ahead and the Millennials behind that are strikingly different from one another. And in most of the ways we take stock of generations their racial and ethnic makeup; their political, social and religious values; their economic and educational circumstances; their technology usage Gen Xers are a low-slung, straight-line bridge between two noisy behemoths. In 2010 when Pew Research asked adults of all ages if they thought their own generation was unique, about six-in-ten Boomers and Millennials said yes. But only about half of Gen Xers said the same. And even among those who did, there was very little consensus about why they are distinctive. One reason Xers have trouble defining their own generational persona could be that they’ve rarely been doted on by the media. By contrast, Baby Boomers have been a source of media fascination from the get-go. Millennials are known as “everybody-gets-a-trophy” generation, they have been the subject of endless stories about their racial diversity, their political and social liberalism, as well as their voracious technology use, and their grim economic circumstances.
According to Sally Kane (2018), Generation X is also called the “Middle Class.” This generation is expected to contribute to the workforce in numbers totaling 65.8 million by 2018. This generation marks the period of birth decline after the baby boom and is significantly smaller than previous and succeeding generations, but it is expected to outnumber Baby Boomers, those born between 1946 and 1964 — by 2028. Between 35 and 50 years old as of 2015, Generation Xers tend to be more ethnically diverse and better educated than Baby Boomers. Over 60 percent of Generation X attended college. Generation X is Technologically Adept. The Generation X mentality reflects a shift from a manufacturing economy to a service economy. This is the first generation who grow up with computers, technology is inextricably woven into their lives. As law firms and corporate legal departments integrate new technological tools, this generation has learned and adapted. A common characteristic of Gen Xers is their comfort level with PDAs, smartphones, email, laptops, tablets and other technology employed in the legal workplace. Generation X is flexible. Many Gen Xers lived through tough economic times in the 1980s and saw their workaholic parents lose hard-earned positions. They tend to be less committed to a single employer as a result. They’re more willing to change jobs to get ahead than previous generations. They adapt well to change and are tolerant of alternative lifestyles. Generation X is ambitious and eager to learn new skills, but they like to accomplish things on their own terms. Generation X Values Work/Life Balance. Unlike previous generations, Generation X works to live rather than lives to work. As of 2010, their assets were statistically double their debts. Compare this to those born during the more frugal years of the Depression and World War II — this generation’s assets were valued at 27 times their debts that same year. Gen Xers appreciate the fun in the workplace and espouse a work hard/play hard mentality. This generation’s managers often incorporate humor and games into work activities.
According to Ashley Rodriguez (2016), Generation X was never one for labels. The so-called “slacker” generation of the 1960s, ’70s, and ’80s was known in its youth for being cynical, rebellious, and not wanting to be put in a box. The “X” in its nickname popularized by author Douglas Coupland stood for a variable, meaning the generation had yet to be defined. Now the cohort is upending what it means to be an adult in much the same way, as its members hit middle age. A new study by Viacom International Media Networks, which sought to uncover what happened to the “slacker” generation after it grew up, found that Generation Xers have profoundly different views on family, friendship, and work-life balance than the millennial generation that followed it—not that you would have heard much about them. Researchers at Viacom surveyed 12,000 adults in 21 countries to get a global view of a generation that lived through globalization. About 9,000 of the respondents were Gen Xers—ages 30 to 49, for the purposes of this study—and the remaining were millennials—ages 18 to 29—for comparison. The researchers complemented the poll findings with detailed, in-person interviews with 36 Gen Xers across eight countries, and photo journals they submitted. Gen Xers had fewer, stronger friendships than millennials, the study found. Those polled had an average of 36 friends—10 less than their millennial counterparts. And they were more comfortable with themselves. The Gen Xers surveyed by Viacom were 20% less likely to feel lonely when compared to millennials. About 85% of Gen Xers also said they were comfortable with who they were. Some of the differences between millennials and Gen Xers, Kurz notes, were likely the result of Gen X simply being older and more mature. But the generation matured in its own way. “That rebellion that we had in our youth,” said Kurz, “it really matured into this fierce independence.” Men in the generation, for example, are more comfortable raising children than the generations before them were known to be. More than 80% of respondents agreed that men can raise kids just as well as women. And more than 90% of dads said having kids around made them laugh every day, while another 50% said they wished they could spend more time with their children.
According to Brandon Carter (2014), Gen Xers have seven characteristics. First is that they are Family oriented. 70% of Gen X parents said their purchases revolve around their children. For a generation that saw their parents’ divorce around 50% of the time, family is important to Gen X. Brands don’t have to install playgrounds at their physical locations, but small things imagery of parents with their kids in emails, for example, or a “surprise” gift that they can immediately turn over to their kids -can connect with Gen Xers. Secondly, they are into luxury. They buy the biggest homes in the US. They eat at the upscale restaurants as a kind of reward. Third, they are successful. Much like the Boomers before them, Xers are now moving into executive positions and peaking in their professional lives. This again calls for premium benefits, such as vacation vouchers or gift cards to high-end retailers. Fourth, Gen Xers are still scrapping. That despite all the success, they are still behind to all the generation. For example, Gen X’s assets only double their debts, compared to 27 times the gap for Silents and four times the gap for Boomers. Half of them are behind on retirement savings and 7% aren’t saving anything at all for retirement. Fifth, is that they are independent. Gen X is full of entrepreneurs and self-starters. A good example of this is how most new smartphones don’t come with an instruction booklet. Companies assume these folks are smart enough to figure it out, and they are. Sixth, Gen Xers are realistic. Despite being in their early 50s at the oldest, Gen X has been to the bottom and back professionally several times. Just 64% of them believe in the American dream, compared to scores in the 70s for Millennials and Boomers. Maybe more than any other generation, their loyalty is going to earned with every interaction – they don’t need you to survive, but they’ll keep brands along if they prove their value. Invest in stability set a direction and stick with it. Lastly, Gen Xers are just getting started. Gen X has all the technology savvy and marketing awareness of Millennials but a tougher facade to cut through, more life experience to draw from. By mirroring their lifestyle characteristics in a brand, that brand will set itself up for success for years to come with Gen X.
According to a study of WJSCHROER, Gen Xers are referred to as the “lost generation.” This was the first generation of “latchkey” kids, exposed to lots of daycare and divorce. Known as the generation with the lowest voting participation rate of any generation, Gen Xers were quoted by Newsweek as “the generation that dropped out without ever turning on the news or tuning in to the social issues around them.” Gen X is often characterized by high levels of skepticism, “what’s in it for me” attitudes and a reputation for some of the worst music to ever gain popularity. William Morrow cited the childhood divorce of many Gen Xers as “one of the most decisive experiences influencing how Gen Xers will shape their own families”. Gen Xers are arguably the best educated generation with 29% obtaining a bachelor’s degree or higher (6% higher than the previous cohort). And, with that education and a growing maturity they are starting to form families with a higher level of caution and pragmatism than their parents demonstrated. Concerns run high over avoiding broken homes, kids growing up without a parent around and financial planning.
MASCULINITY. According to BMC Public Health (2013,) perception of masculinity gives a huge role in men’s lifestyles and health behaviors. Masculinity is defined as sets of characteristics, qualities and/or roles that are generally given to men. according to the ‘gender role strain paradigm’, masculinity is not a fixed entity and there is no single standard for this concept. In other words, this paradigm considers masculinity ‘ideologies’ rather than masculinity ‘ideology’. Hence, the ideal traits of masculinity are constructed differently for men in different social classes, ethnic groups, regional cultures and life stages. Gender norms are powerfully affected by the society and culture, and therefore, socio-cultural changes influence people’s understanding of roles in personal, interpersonal, and social contexts.
According to Michael Kimmel (2014), masculinities studies is a vibrant, interdisciplinary field of study broadly concerned with the social construction of what it means to “be a man.” Masculinities scholars study the social role and meanings of masculinities. A vast majority of scholarship dealing with gender inequality focuses on women and the ways that they are structurally and systematically subordinated to men and disadvantaged. Scholars of inequality note, however, that there are two sides to inequality: disadvantage and privilege. Masculinities scholars study the various ways that men are—as a group—privileged, as well as focusing on the costs of those privileges and the ways in which not all men are granted equal access to them. “Masculinity” refers to the behaviors, social roles, and relations of men within a given society as well as the meanings attributed to them. The term masculinity stresses gender, unlike male, which stresses biological sex. Thus, studies of masculinities need not be confined to biological males. Masculinity studies is a feminist-inspired, interdisciplinary field that emerged in the last few decades of the 20th century as a topic of study. It deals with the diversity of identities, behaviors, and meanings that occupy the label masculine and does not assume that they are universal. Thus, scholars of masculinity often refer to masculinities in the plural to highlight the diversity of meanings, roles, and behaviors consumed in the term. Despite the fact that gender is often experienced as intensely personal—an internal facet of our identity—masculinities are produced and reproduced through the course of our daily interactions as well as within the larger institutions of society.
According to Jeff Hearn (2018), Even though gender and gender analysis are still often equated with women, men and masculinities are equally gendered. This applies throughout society, including within organizations. Following pioneering feminist scholarship on work and organizations, explicitly gendered studies on men and masculinities have increased since the 1980s. The need to include the gendered analysis of men and masculinities as part of gender studies of organizations, leadership, and management, is now widely recognized at least within gender research. Yet, this insight continues to be ignored or downplayed in mainstream work and even in some studies seen as “critical.” Indeed, the vast majority of mainstream work on organizations still has either no gender analysis whatsoever or relies on a very simplistic and rather crude understanding of gender dynamics. Research on men and masculinities has been wide ranging and has raised important new issues about gendered dynamics in organizations, including cultures and countercultures on factory shop floors; historical transformations of men and management in reproducing patriarchies; the relations of bureaucracy, men, and masculinities; management-labor relations as interrelations of masculinities; managerial and professional identity formation; managerial homosociality; and the interplay of diverse occupational masculinities. Research has revealed how structures, cultures, and practices of men and masculinities continue to persist and to dominate in many contemporary organizations. Having said this, the concepts of gender, of men and masculinities, and of organization have all been subject to complex and contradictory processes that entail both their explicit naming and their simultaneous deconstruction and critique.
According to Sat Purusha (2017), Masculinity varies for each man dependent on personality, family and culture. The common thread is a set of characteristics that allow men to feel masculine. The domination and suppression of women by men has existed throughout history. Men have used physical, psychological and emotional means to dominate women. Our view of the world influences our view of this domination. Men both deny it and accept it. Most men see its existence but deny any personal involvement in it. They approach it from their own needs as men and leave women to resolve their own relationship to it. Many men feel that, at a personal level, they aren’t responsible for this domination, and they are not. They feel it is false to take on the guilt of others and that a simple apology does not change the situation. Other men take on all the guilt and shame and prostrate themselves before women. It is alright for them to deal with their own personal views in this way. They should, though, remember that adopting this stance creates a divide among men. This turns the issue into a problem about men. Men need to recognize that this issue transcends their individuality. Men caused this domination and abuse. Only when men take a universal, joint responsibility, will they stop it. If men seek masculinity, they must take responsibility. If they seek common ground, they must see that it is in this common ground that the responsibility lies. It is by working together with other men that they strengthen their masculinity. Men can help women move beyond their fear and anger and understand men. Men can help women find their power and face them as equals. Men do not need to feel guilt, pain or sorrow for all the abuse women have taken in history. What they do need to do is respect women. It is in this joint respecting of each other that union and polarity can grow and flourish.
According to R.W. Connell, she wrote the book “Masculinities” that was published in 1993 where as she comes up with three types of masculinity. First, hegemonic masculinity can be thought of as the dominant form of masculinity within a society. This form of masculinity refers to being white, heterosexual, and middle class. It prizes things like physical strength and suppressing emotions and is the idealized and celebrated form of masculinity in western culture. Hegemonic masculinity is only achieved by men who possess these qualities. Second, marginalized masculinity is a form of masculinity that is unable to conform to or derive benefits from hegemonic masculinity. Marginalized masculinity might mean lacking some of the characteristics of hegemonic masculinity, like being disabled or non-white. Lastly, subordinate masculinity means a person lacks many of the qualities of hegemonic masculinity and also expresses qualities opposite to hegemonic masculinity. This includes things like being overly emotional or acting in a feminine way, or not being heterosexual.
Colorado State University said that boys are told that All men are influenced by their upbringing, experience, and social environment which play a big role in determining one’s view of masculinity and manhood. This means that masculinity is going to be different for everyone. Some particularly influential factors in shaping one’s idea of manhood are race, class, ability, sexual orientation, and gender. Social justice advocates view these social identities as the most salient factors in society that determine who has power and privilege and who faces societal oppression. Men who are oppressed in one or more ways within this structure embody “marginalized masculinities”, which are ways of being men that are seen as less than or ridiculed by more privileged men as a means of constructing their own identities as men. Since factors like class, race, gender, sexual orientation and ability have to be taken into consideration when understanding masculinity, it’s important to note the complexities of masculine privilege from an intersectional lens. Masculine privilege is the idea that men are afforded unearned benefits, rights, and advantages in society. These privileges are often times invisible to men and can be difficult to notice because they are so normalized. For men with marginalized masculinities, masculine privilege operates differently because they are privileged as men but hold at least one oppressed identity. For example, one of the privileges that men have is the ability to take up social space in a room. However, men of color (in a mostly white space), men with disabilities (in a mostly able-bodied space), working class men (in an upper-middle class space), transmen (in a mostly cisgender space), and queer men (in a mostly hetero space) may not necessarily be afforded this privilege (although it does occur at times). But men with marginalized masculinities still have more privilege than their female counterparts.
According to Helena Gurfinkel (2012), Masculinity is an interdisciplinary field of cultural, social, historical, political, psychological, economic, and artistic analysis that interrogates the construction of masculinity in communities across the world and at various times in history. For example, being involved in sports and being a provider are the examples of American hegemonic masculinity, while shunning sports and being a stay-at-home-dad are examples of subordinate masculinities. Usually, hegemonic masculinities have power and meet with social approval, while subordinate ones do not. Throughout history, men have paid a steep price for not adhering to, or consciously resisting, hegemonic models. Masculinity-studies know, however, that times change, and that what was subordinate half a century ago, may be relatively mainstream, if not hegemonic, now. Because masculinity-studies scholars realize that sex and gender are separate entities, they also study the lives of, and become advocates for, transgender individuals who are born biologically female but live as men.
According to Elvind Skjellum (2014), Masculinity is not synonymous with “man”. Just like men can be feminine, women can be masculine. The quality of masculinity is what makes someone masculine, not their gender. It is represented by the ability to “detach” from the situation, to evaluate it with an outside perspective. This gives masculine people the ability to act strategically, be great planners, and to not be swept away by emotions when some composure is required. Masculinity is grounded in emptiness. Emptiness is that state that transcends the temporal realm of manifestation. It is the capacity of the masculine to tap into the void, that which is beyond. The masculine person lives to give himself as a living sacrifice, knowing that it is the only way he can protect himself from death. Also, masculinity is the ability to proactively penetrate any challenges that present themselves. Matured man in his masculinity accepts total responsibility for his action, their consequences, and also those of others. The masculine always has a direct direction. For the man with a masculine essence, it is crucial that he maintains a clear direction in life and relationships lest he feel totally disempowered. A man who is not directed will be felt as “spacy” and cannot be trusted.
An article of wikigender said that the underlying idea in the gender discourse that masculinities are not something men are born with, can be traced to a similar conception about what it means to be “feminine” expounded by Simone de Beauvoir , that is, that “one is not born, but rather becomes, a woman”. By this, Beauvoir meant to destroy the essentialist theory which claims that women are born feminine, and to argue that they are rather constructed to be such through social indoctrination. Along the same lines, as stated amongst others by Élisabeth Badinter, Beauvoir’s conception applies equally to men: “one is not born, but rather becomes, a man.” Hence the distinction between sex and gender. In recent times, the leading proponent of this idea of “masculinity” is Raewyn Connell (widely known as R.W. Connell) and the term is used more in its plural form, “masculinities”, because the inference is that there is not one, but many socially constructed definitions for being a man. The term “masculinities” and Connell’s definition thereof have been endorsed and applied by several organizations and entities, including the United Nations (UN). In 2003, Connell also worked with United Nations agencies to prepare policy statements on the role of men and boys in achieving gender equality. This involved moderating online seminars, giving the background report at an expert group meeting in Brazil, and then giving the opening statement at a meeting of the UN Commission on the Status of Women , in New York.
According to Reuben Ramas Canete (2011), The bad boy, street-tough cowboy of the golden age of Philippine cinema has been replaced by a working/professional-class young male with a complex psychological, sexual, and social status, and imbued with a softer, more considerate attitude among both women and gays. The new macho is a metrosexual, characterized by a diverse range of talents: singing, dancing, modeling, cooking, and maintaining a household through their own income. The macho is a descendant of the Hispanic majo – late 18th century Madrid street toughs famous for their outlandish costumes, exotic blend of Spanish and gypsy culture, and assertive violence. The macho is assumed to be a heterosexual male who fathers children from multiple women, fraternizes with other males in public displays of masculine bravado (like drinking, gambling, and fisticuffs), and establishes their social status through dominance over other sexes and genders, such as women and queers. This macho as an aggressive, petulant, and irresponsible male who inhabits the center of the social stage – and has defined for its popular audience what ‘being a man’ is – has been reinforced by novels, films, plays, music and dance. It reached a plateau of sorts through the various filmic characters (particularly the American cowboy) of the post-World War II period. It has since expanded to such disparate cultural manifestations as the glamour spy (James Bond), the scarred war hero (John Rambo), or the hip hop gangster (Eminem). The Philippine cultural construct of the macho can be seen, on its surface, as a confirmation of these Western models of machismo, perhaps because of its unique historical position as a Hispanic-American colony until 1946, and the continuing dominance of ‘global ‘(Western) culture through film, radio, television, and the Internet.
The conceptual diagram exhibits the factors of the viewers’ perception towards advertisements (instructive, brand familiarity, detrimental to society, personal consequences and pleasurable) as it affects the respondents’ perception towards male-endorsed makeup advertisements. The diagram also includes the 4-four subscales of the masculine behavior scale or MBS; (1) Success dedication subscale which encompasses the behaviors related to immoderate wants to achieve success; (2) Restrictive emotionality subscale, which encompasses the behaviors related to the limitation of personal emotions; (3) Inhibited affection subscale, which encompasses the behaviors related to the reservation of fondness for significant persons; (4) Exaggerated self-reliance & control subscale, which encompasses the behaviors related to the overstatement of independence and power.
The findings of the study that may present a relationship between the perception of Filipino genxers towards male-endorsed makeup advertisements and their masculinity behavior, will be utilized by the researchers to generate a purposeful campaign that may be applicable in the Philippine setting.
SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The researchers limited the study on the respondents’ perception towards the male endorsing make-up and its relation to masculinity. The study focused on the Filipino genxers who are born from 1960 to 1980. The study aimed to find out if their perception on male endorsing make-up and its relation to masculinity. The researchers focused on make-up brands that uses male to endorsed their products such as L’oreal, Anastasia Beverly Hills, Cover Girl, and Make and Milk Cosmetics. These make-up brands are chosen based on the make-up brands’ recent campaign.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The study aims to answer the following questions:
What is the perception of Filipino GenXers towards male makeup advertisements?
What is the identity of Filipino GenXers?
Is there a relationship between their perception towards male makeup and their identity?
What advertising campaign can be made out of these findings?
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study was conducted to know the Filipino Genxers’ perception towards the male makeup and their identiy. This study may prove beneficial to the following:
Filipino GenxersThe study will give them knowledge about male who uses makeup. It will also give them the knowledge of each other’s perspective. It will also give them answers why society now needs to accepts male who wears make-ups.
Make brands will have the knowledge and motivation to introduce and produce more makeups that will cater both genders. From this study they will gain the perception of Filipino Genxers’ about makeups.
The study will be conducted for the future researchers, it will give them deep knowledge on the acceptability of Philippines’ society about Male wearing make-ups.
The study will give the advertising practitioners on how they will execute and advertise Filipino male models and celebrities who wears and endorse makeups. They will get insights from the research gathered.
This chapter contains the information regarding the process that we will use to gather and analyze data for this research pertaining to Filipino genxers’ perception towards male endorsing make-up and its relation to masculinity. This chapter includes the description of research design, participants and sampling technique for the research, research instruments, data gathering procedure, and methods for data analysis.
This research identifies the perception of Filipino genxers towards male-endorsed makeup advertisements and its relation to masculinity. This study also identifies why US makeup advertisements that is endorsed by males are successful and accepted. This study identifies as well the acceptability level of Filipino genxers towards male endorsing make-ups.
PARTICIPANTS AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
The participants for this study are a number of 250 Filipino Genxers that are born from 1960 to 1980 who live within metro manila and own social media especially Facebook. Facebook is believed to be the most powerful and crowded social media platform, according to Ellen Thomas (2016) because it is where most agencies and brands post their advertisements. The number of participants of this study is based on the capability of the researchers.
The researchers will use advertisements of brands such as L’Oréal, Anastasia Beverly Hills, Cover Girl, and Make and Milk Cosmetics. Filipino Genxers will be randomly ask to answer the survey questionnaires provided. It’s a face to face interaction, while some are through Facebook. The only requirement for the respondents is that they must be born between 1960 to 1980.
The researchers will use a descriptive quantitative research, a combination of descriptive statistics that involves establishing only associations between variables and quantitative data that will be express numerically and statistically. The variables involve and will be measure are study of the perception of the Filipino genxers towards male-endorsed makeup advertisement and its relation to their masculine behavior.
DATA GATHERING PROCEDURE
The researchers will create an online survey through google docs. After encoding the entire content, the researchers will send the survey link to Filipino Genxers randomly on Facebook via personal messaging and postings on different Facebook groups. The researchers will ask the age and the year they were born of the possible respondents first to ensure that they fit the requirement. Regardless of their current exposure to the chosen brands.
The researchers will ask random Filipino Genxers to answer the survey questionnaires that are provided. For the primary method which is face-to-face, the researchers will introduce themselves; name, age, year and course, and school. The researchers will explain their study and its purpose. After which, the researchers will make the respondents answer the survey questionnaire. The researchers will also explain how the respondents were chosen to take part on this study. When the participants have agreed, the researchers will compromise by telling them about the confidentiality of the information to be gathered. The entire questionnaire will be discuss, and it will take an approximate of 30 minutes for completion. After conducting the survey on ground, the researchers will thank the respondents.
To be able to describe the information that will be collected from the survey, the central tendencies such as the mean will be involved in the statistical treatment of data. After gathering the data, the researchers will compute the overall mean value of the sets of data – data – the perception of filipino gen xers towards male-endorsed makeup advertisements and its relation to their masculinity. This will help the researchers in describing and summarizing the data results.
Perception of Filipino GenXers towards Male Makeup and their Identity
Good day! We are 3rd year and 4th year students of Assumption College Makati, under the Department of Communication. We are currently doing a thesis regarding the Perception of Filipino GenXers towards Male Makeup and their Identity. Answering this survey would be a great help for the researchers in accomplishing the said study. Thank you for participation!
Answer the following question according to your own perception towards the male-endorsed makeup advertisements.
(2) Strongly Disagree
1. I find male endorsers to be convincing.
2. I do not find advertisements with male endorsers noticeable.
3. I love male endorsing brands I like.
4. Male endorsers of advertisements appeal to Filipino Gen Xers.
5. A brand is in my “top-list” when it is advertised by Male models.
6. Male endorsers in such brands lessen discrimination.
7. I remember the male endorsers but not the product.
8. I find male endorser unreliable to such brands.
9. I find male endorsers overexposed to such brands.
10. Filipino Gen Xers are more likely to buy the product when it is advertised by the same gender.
Answer the following question according to your masculinity behavior. 1being the highest and 4 being the lowest.
1 2 3 4
1. How masculine are you?
2. On what level of acceptability do you accept men endorsing makeup?
3. On what level of acceptability do you accept men wearing makeup?
4. How much do you agree on men wearing makeup?
5.How much do you agree on men endorsing makeup?
6.On what level of behavior do you have in terms of men wearing makeup?
7. On what level of behavior do you have in terms of men endorsing makeup?
8. It does not affect my masculinity level when I see men wearing makeup for their daily purposes
9. How acceptable it is to men wearing makeup in their workplace?
10. How acceptable it is to men wearing makeup in their everyday basis?
https://www.thebalance.com/common-characteristics-of-generation-x-professionals-2164682https://ph.asiatatler.com/generation-t/minding-the-gapshttp://opinion.inquirer.net/55415/pinoy-generationshttps://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-cognitive-dissonance-2795012https://books.google.com.ph/books?hl=en&lr=&id=SePipgh2z7kC&oi=fnd&pg=PA377&dq=cognitive+dissonance+theory&ots=_NhrrjI2yT&sig=VtOmA-nhbD041yONlHro2QrWjqY&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=cognitive%20dissonance%20theory&f=false Vogt, Crystal. (n.d.). What Is Perception in Advertising? Small Business – Chron.com. Retrieved from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/perception-advertising-25438.html
HYPERLINK “http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199799558/obo-9780199799558-0141.xml” http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199799558/obo-9780199799558-0141.xml
HYPERLINK “https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3840654/” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3840654/
HYPERLINK “http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199756384/obo-9780199756384-0033.xml” http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199756384/obo-9780199756384-0033.xml
HYPERLINK “https://www.questia.com/library/literature/literary-themes-and-topics/masculinity-in-literature” https://www.questia.com/library/literature/literary-themes-and-topics/masculinity-in-literature
HYPERLINK “http://business.oxfordre.com/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190224851.001.0001/acrefore-9780190224851-e-55” http://business.oxfordre.com/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190224851.001.0001/acrefore-9780190224851-e-55
HYPERLINK “http://satpurusha.com/what-is-masculinity/” http://satpurusha.com/what-is-masculinity/
HYPERLINK “https://study.com/academy/lesson/complicit-masculinity-definition-example.html” https://study.com/academy/lesson/complicit-masculinity-definition-example.html
HYPERLINK “https://wgac.colostate.edu/education/gender-and-identity/men-and-masculinities/” https://wgac.colostate.edu/education/gender-and-identity/men-and-masculinities/
HYPERLINK “https://siuewmst.wordpress.com/2012/12/06/masculinity-studies-what-is-it-and-why-would-a-feminist-care/” https://siuewmst.wordpress.com/2012/12/06/masculinity-studies-what-is-it-and-why-would-a-feminist-care/
http://www.masculinity-movies.com/articles/what-is-masculinityhttp://ncca.gov.ph/about-culture-and-arts/in-focus/re-envisioning-the-macho-masculinity-in-philippine-visual-culture/https://www.wikigender.org/wiki/masculinities/ HYPERLINK “http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/06/05/generation-x-americas-neglected-middle-child/” http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/06/05/generation-x-americas-neglected-middle-child/
HYPERLINK “https://qz.com/812502/generation-x-has-found-its-groove-in-middle-age-according-to-a-new-study-from-viacom/” https://qz.com/812502/generation-x-has-found-its-groove-in-middle-age-according-to-a-new-study-from-viacom/
HYPERLINK “https://people.howstuffworks.com/culture-traditions/generation-gaps/generation-x1.htm” https://people.howstuffworks.com/culture-traditions/generation-gaps/generation-x1.htm
HYPERLINK “http://socialmarketing.org/archives/generations-xy-z-and-the-others/” http://socialmarketing.org/archives/generations-xy-z-and-the-others/
https://www.thebalance.com/common-characteristics-of-generation-x-professionals-2164682 HYPERLINK “http://www.masculinity-movies.com/articles/what-is-masculinity”
http://www.marketest.co.uk/market-research-questionnaire/539/media_influences_on_cosmeticshttp://www.marketest.co.uk/market-research-questionnaire/432/makeuphttps://www.surveymonkey.com/r/JXDP5LJhttps://www.slideshare.net/MOHAMMEDAFTHABAM/questionnaire-on-consumer-behaviour-on-cosmetic-producthttps://blog.accessdevelopment.com/index.php/2014/07/8-personality-based-tips-to-earn-emotional-loyalty-from-gen-xhttps://muse.jhu.edu/article/619687https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/1507/024a021f0c25b876c9e7a3c768dca24fd50f.pdfhttps://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/the-impact-of-perceived-effectiveness-of-celebrity-endorsement-onperceived-brand-personality-2168-9601-1000244.php?aid=92228#23http://www.eajournals.org/wp-content/uploads/Factors-Influencing-Effectiveness-of-Celebrity-Endorsement-in-Advertising.pd HYPERLINK “http://www.eajournals.org/wp-content/uploads/Factors-Influencing-Effectiveness-of-Celebrity-Endorsement-in-Advertising.pdf” h f