Part-timer Students and their Academic Performance

Part-timer Students and their Academic Performance;
Teachers College, University of Bohol
Amor, Salve Regina
Clorado, Shiela Michelle
Dospueblos, Ivy Corinne
Guisado, RoselaLobrigas, Raniel Louie Anne
Mortejo, Nan Vincent
Payot, AnalieReyes, Gretchen
Teachers College
University of Bohol
SY 2017-2018

CHAPTER 1
THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE
Introduction
We can’t say easy to balance the two variables and enjoy a social life, but bunch of students does manage it- so how can you?
Nowadays, college students are less prepared for tertiary-level work than their predecessors. Once they enter into college, they need to spend fewer hours in academic while spending more hours working,even full time (D. T. Smart, C. A. Kelley, ; J. S. Conant, 1999).

The development of an individual must be considered as a combination of simultaneous connections (1) in several systems such as family, school and work and these systems have consequences when they interrelate. An individual can cope better if there is familiarity and shared knowledge among systems and participation by members of each system, particularly the family. If adolescent part-time work is supported by family, school and community, students will cope better in all systems and their educational achievementshould not normally be affected in negative ways.

A part-time student takes lesser classes than a full-time student, but usually also works a job. There are different factors to say into account when considering part-time versus full-time status, such as money, relationship and personal outcome.

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In credits- a student is considered part-time if he is taking between one and eleven credits. A semester load of at least six credits generally required for financial and eligibility. Money is usually a reason in the decision whether to attend part-time or full-time. The ability to work and take classes allows a student to still maintain an income. In family- take your family into consideration when deciding whether to go to college part-time. When it comes to budgeting the part-time students are striving hard to earn their own money inorder to provide their needs and they tend to spend it wisely.Part- time jobs are often tough, and hand-earned money can be painful to part-with. Therefore, students are more likely to save their money for important things such as textbooks and rent. In time management- students with jobs have little free time. The predisposes them to become more organized and better planners, learning to weigh their priorities in order to meet deadlines. Effective time management benefits both your studies and life after universities. In balancing study with a part-time, student job, many students feel that a part-time job will be the detriment of their studies.

Theoretical Framework
Tinto’s theory of social and academic integration is the most referred to in the area of student retention. In 1975 Tinto drew upon the work of Spady(1970) who was the first to apply the Durkheim’s theory of suicide to 3
student retention. This theory is based on the affirmation that the resemblance that an individual will really commit suicide is predicted by the level of their integration into society (Tinto 1975, 91). While in Durkheim’s model of suicide, individuals commit suicide because they are insufficiently integrated into society, Tinto asserts that dropout occurs because students are insufficiently integrated into different aspects of the university. Tinto further debate that dropout could occur because lack of integration in either the academic or the social systems of the school (Tinto 1975, 92). Based on further research, Tinto revised the theory in 1987 by including the three stages of moving from one community to the other. The first stage, separation, refers to the student’s parting with one group to join another one. During the second stage, which is transition, student deal with the stresses of coping in a new, unfamiliarenvironment.In the last stage of incorporation students become competent in being members of the new environment (McClanahan 2004, 3; Swail,Redd and Perna 2003, 46). A further revision of this theory in 1993 added other variables affecting the social and academic integration of students in the university. These variables are adjustment, difficulty, incongruence, isolation, learning and external obligations or commitment of the students in the school(Tinto 1993, 45). Tinto further revised the integration theory in 1997 by focusing on the classroom experience. From this outlook, Tinto affirm that the interaction process that takes place between 4
inside the classroom and outside determines the social and academic integration of students (Tinto 1997, 1 of 4).
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Theoretical view on factors affecting the school performance of students 997 Bennett (2003, 127)elaborates the two appearances of Tinto’s model. The first aspect,academic integration, includes factors like as academic performance of the student, cognitive development and whether the student believes that teachers are personally committed to teaching and lending a hand to students. Social integration in turn, includes factors like as the student’s self-respect and the quality of the relationship with fellow students and teachers. In additional explanation of Tinto’s model by Berge and Huang (2004, 8), McCubbin (2003, 2) and Seidman (1996, 1of 6) shows that student whoplans to enter college characteristics such as family background, academic ability, and prior schooling will figure out their academic and social integration into the school environment, and subsequently their academic performance.
According to Albert Bandura known for his Social Cognitive Theory, it is a theory based on the ideas that people learn by watching what others do, and that human perception processes are central to understanding personality. This theory provides a framework for understanding and predicting.

According to Lazarus and Folkman cognitive relational theory defines stress as a particular relationship between the person and the environment that is appraised by the person as taxing or exceeding his or her resources and endangering his or her well-being.

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Legal Bases
In order to provide education to all students fairly, and also in order to provide a more supportive environment for those students who wants to get a bachelor degree. The following are the laws and policies which taken to serve as the legal bases of the study:
The Republic Act no-6014, section 1 declared a policy to give equal opportunity to all persons who desire to pursue higher education by extending financial assistance and promoting scholarship rants-in-aid to deserving 8
students to the end that no person shall be deprived of the benefits of education on account of poverty.

The Republic Act. No-7722, section 2 tells thatthe state shall protect, and promote the right of all the members of the state to have an affordable, quality education and ensure and protect academic freedom and shall promote itsexercise and observance for the continuing intellectual growth,the advancement of learning and research, the development ofresponsible and effective leadership, the education of high-level and middle-level professionals.

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According to Republic Act no-7722, Section 13 Guarantee of Academic Freedom says that nothing in this Act shall simplify as limiting the academic freedom in the tertiary level. Also, no academic condition shall be made upon private education institutions which are not required for chartered state college and universities.

Related Literature
Students are the one who will decide whether they will be working part time or a full time student and it is an important decision which is really relatedwith the time management. Nowadays, student who is a part timer is also a phenomena and has been a feature of the university experience.
Warren, (2007) in his researchon the relation between part-time and academic outcomes. According to warren, “the time and energy that students dedicate to employment can also be considered as a decrease in the time and 9
energy allotted to socialization, television watching, delinquency, or other less academically beneficial activities”.

Using time as the measure or the basis of the theory, it can be said that it tends to ignore the conscious and deliberate decision- making process that students (and perhaps parents) use when deciding whether and how intensively students should work. Work schedules (and employment status) may affect schooling outcomes, but employment activities may conceivably be affected by how well students are doing in school.Tinto concludes that employment not only limits the time one has for academic studies, it also severely limits one’s opportunities for interaction with other students and faculty. As a result of being a part-time student, their social integration as well as their academic performance suffers and will be affected.
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According to Furr and Elling (2000), 29% of the students working 30-39 hours per week and 39% of those students working full time indicated that work had a negative and frequent impact on their academic progress. Those who take on part-time jobs are less engaged in school before they enter the labor force, and part-time employment, “especially for more than 20 hours weekly, further exacerbates this problem”(Steinberg et al., 1993, p. 175). Furr and Elling (2000) also found that upperclassmen worked more hours than freshmen, indicating that the older students would be more likely to suffer in their academics. Therefore, working full time has an even greater impact on academics because, often times, working 40 or more hours further decreases a student’s college grade point average (GPA) and is negatively related to completion of a bachelor’s degree (Astin, 1993).

According to Canadian Social Trends, 1994 shows that student who worked more than 20 hours had 33% dropout rate whereas students who worked less than 20 hours had a 16% dropout rate. Young and immature students tend to find it difficult to manage working hours and study than older students (Barone 1993). Therefore, age also pays an important role in the students’ decisions. A March 2009 study by the Bureau of Labor Statistics states that students with part-time work reduce the time spent on homework, sleeping, and socialization by 84%. McInnes (2001) stated that “compared with those who do not work, younger first year students who work part-time are more likely to spend fewer days on campus, to not work with other students on areas of their course, and to have studied inconsistently through the semester. They also tend to anticipate getting lower marks, and are more likely to seriously consider deferring at an early point of their student experience … We “also know that these negative factors are amplified the more hours students work, and they feel seriously burdened by over commitment.

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Related Studies
It is also confirmed in the study of Institute for Social and Economic Research, Essex University in England that those who were employed part-time during the school term have a lower probability of continuing in post-compulsory education, even when controlling for final exam results.

In the study of Lauren E. Watanabe, The Effects of College Student Employment on Academic Achievement, University of Central Florida (2005) Based upon research evidence, the following hypotheses were developed: (a) Fewer hours worked lead to higher academic achievement; (b) Jobs or internships (paid or unpaid) that are related to the students’ majors have a positive impact on academic achievement; (c) Higher class standing of students lead to higher academic achievement; and (d) Students who take fewer credit hours will have higher academic achievement.

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In The Impact of term-time working on college in China (2014) Fei Gou; state that working while enrolled in college is encouraged by many higher education institutions, with a hope that the working experience could help college graduates perform better in the job market. However, some opponents point out that working during academic semesters might be harmful to students’ educational achievement, and may not be able to provide students with valuable practical trainings as most of the jobs are low-skill and labor-intensive.

Theories
Tinto (Theory of social and academic integration)
Albert Bandura (Social Cognitive Theory)
Lazarus and Folkman cognitive relational theory
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Legal Bases
The Republic act no. 6014, section 1 declared a policy to give equal opportunity to all persons.

The republic act no. 7722, section 2 says that the state shall protect
The republic act no. 7722, section 13 Guarantee of Academic Freedom

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INPUT

Data on:
Profile of the Students
Academic Performance of the student.

PROCESS

Simple Percentage
Weighted Mean

OUTPUT

RECOMMENDATIONS
Figure I. Research Flow

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REFERENCES
https://www.hecsu.ac.uk/assets/assets/documents/research_reports/part_time_undergraduates_in_he_0509.pdfhttps://www.iser.essex.ac.uk/research/publications/working-papers/iser/2014-42.pdfhttps://www.ukessays.com/essays/education/part-time-work-towards-academic-performance-education-essay.phphttps://urj.ucf.edu/docs/URJmanuscript_Watanabe_080509.pdfhttps://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/business-and-economics-journal-2151-6219.1000110.php?aid=31717http://www.academia.edu/5323781/FACTORS_AFFECTING_THE_ACADEMIC_PERFORMANCE_OF_THE_WORKINGhttps://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=https%3A%2F%2Facademiccommons.columbia.edu%2Fdownload%2Ffedora_content%2Fdownload%2Fac%3A176828%2FCONTENT%2FGuo_columbia_0054D_12169.pdf&h=ATOJJP4vOZ50kTwerx1xiWW1ndPgyahOk21E5txwTsRTf4PqUxeovWDC4vXfpqwV6PUepytvczH8EP1IG3gpE3YVEKm4-Kd0uBzrFIZZMY3qliOANJuEWg12
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The Problem
Statement of the Problem:
This study aims to determine the study of part-time students and their academic performance.

Inferential Questions:
What is the profile of the students in terms of:
Age
Sex
Year Level
General Average last semester
What is the academic performance of a part time student?
Is there a significant relationship between the academic performance and the profile of the student in line with his/her job?
Based on the findings, what are the recommendation can you proposed?
Null Hypothesis
This study either accept or reject the null hypothesis that there is no significant degree of relationship between the profile of the students towards their academic performance.

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Significance of the Study
The research is highly believed that the study is productive and will guide the following:
Administration
The administration would benefit to this study by means of making this as their basis in constructing and enhancing the curriculum for this subject.

Teachers
This study would benefit the teachers by giving a consideration for those part-time students.

This study aims to be beneficial to the teachers in terms of helping the students by giving advices and motivating them. And also some consideration towards the students who are part-timer.13
Students
This study would benefit the student directly. The result of this test would help the student enhance their time management and how they manage their studies and their work. The student will find out if being a part-time students and having a work affect their grades.

This study may serve as an inspirational guide to all part-timer or hardworking students for their hard work in earning money while studying.

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This study may serve as a guide for all education students who wants to help lessen their tuition fees while studying in college.
Parents
This study would benefit the parents by means of knowing about how difficult it is for a part-timer student to balance their time and their studies, and somehow give support to them, it maybe not financially but in other ways that can strengthen them.

Future Researchers
This study may serve as a helpful guide for exploring the life of a part-time student and make them feel that there are many ways to earn money while studying.
Research Methodology
To attain the purpose of this study, quantitative method of descriptive 14
type was employed with the aid of a research tool questionnaire and evaluationto gather data needed in the study. The data was gathered by a Random Sampling Technique. This set of instrument was presented to experts for validation and was also pre-tested with students who were not included in the sample.

Respondents
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The respondents are the part time students in University of Bohol Teachers College. A minimum of 16 students who were identified as a respondent in this study.Table1. Show the distribution of the respondents
Table 1 Survey Questions to Distribution of Respondents.

Environment
The locale of this study is the University of Bohol, Teachers College. The University of Bohol, Teachers College is headed by the dean with more orless15 faculty members. More than 800 populations from different majors. Their office is located at the ground floor Founder’s Building.

133350015
Instruments:
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The main tool used was the researcher-constructed questionnaire. The purpose of this test is to check if the job can benefit him or not. And to check if being part-timer really affects academic performance. And also to find out the students’ GPA in the tertiary level of the University of Bohol. A total of items test questionnaire was conducted. The questionnaire was divided into two parts: the first part is all about the profile of the students and in the second part, the students were given inferential questions.
To assure the validity of the questionnaire, it was shown in the adviser for suggestions and clarifications to improve the tool. When the tool was improved, it was reproduced for the administration of the test. The set of instrument used was also pre-tested with students who were not respondents of the research.
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Data-Gathering Procedure
Researchers sent a letter to the Vice President of Academics and Dean of the Teachers College, University of Bohol for approval to conduct the study and to administer the test.

It was conducted during vacant time of the part-time students. The students were given 20 minutes to answer the test.We obtained an Informed Consent to the students before the interview or the conducting of the test to them. The data were classified, tallied and then collated in tables for analysis and interpretation and these were statistically treated to test the hypothesis.

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Statistical Treatment
This study used the simple percentage in analyzing and interpreting the data gathered. The percentage was derived by dividing the frequency of responseof each time by the number of cases multiplied by one hundred using the formula:
P= fN x 100
Where: P= Percentage
F= Frequency
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N= Number of cases
To determine the relationship between the student performance and its work as a part timer student.
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Operational Definition of Terms
To avoid conflict of ideas, the following terms are defined as used in this investigatory project.

Students-a person who gain knowledge or understanding or skill by studying, practicing, being taught, or experiencing something.

Simultaneous-existing or occurring at the same time.

Budgeting-a statement of the financial position of an administration (as of a nation) for a definite period of time based on estimates of expenditures during the period and proposals for financing them.

Financial-use to purchase the expenses and economic purposes.

Salary-fixed compensation paid regularly for services.

Income- a gain or recurrent benefit usually measured in money that derives from capital or labor also, the amount of such gain received in a period of time.

Multi-tasking- the performance of multiple tasks at one time.

Time Management- managing their time for studies and work.

Part-timer- multi tasking or balancing their time as a student and their job.

QUESTIONNAIRE
We, the 4th year students of Teacher College in University of Bohol, are conducting research regarding the academic performance of a part timer. You are being asked for about 3-5 minutes of your time to fill in the following survey.

PART 1
Profile Respondents
What is the profile of the student in terms of:
Age:
Sex:
Year level:
General Average last semester:

Filling out the following survey will be regarded as your consent to participate in the study.

Directions – fill in the following survey using information from only the fall semester of 2017.
What was your GWA last semester? _______________
How many credit hours were you enrolled?
a. 0-6 b. 7-13 c. 14+
How many hours per week on average did you work? ____________
How flexible was your work schedule? Circle one
Very flexible (employers worked completely around your school schedule)
Somewhat flexible (employers took your schedule into consideration, but did not make it a priority)
Not too flexible (employers only made special scheduling considerations if absolutely necessary)
Not flexible at all (employers did take into account your school schedule at all)
6. What was your reason for working? Circle all that apply
a. Income needs
b. Spending money
c. Career advancement/ Career experience
d. Leisure purposes
e. Other (please specify) ___________________
7. Were there other factors that may have influenced your academics, your work schedule, or both? ________________________