Paddy 1980s, and 2008 food crisis happen, and

Paddy is where rice is developed. A paddy is a total seed of rice and one grain of paddy contains one rice part. Paddy field cultivating is rehearsed in Asia. Paddy field is a major source of food. At the point when rice is collected it is called ‘Paddy’. Because of its importance, rice industry has gotten attention from the government. As a main source for over half of the world’s population, rice is one of the most important commercial food crops. Its yearly yield worldwide is around 535 million tons. Fifty nations deliver rice, with China and India supporting half of total product. Southeast Asian nations support an annual production rate of 9-23 million metric huge amounts of which they export very little. Altogether, they are named the Rice Bowl. More than 300 million sections of land of Asian land is utilized for developing rice. Rice production is so important to Asian cultures.
To guarantee that rice supply is enough for the country, the government make various policies that will advance this industry. During 1970s, 1980s, and 2008 food crisis happen, and rice prices of world market and it had a negative impact to the industry. In this way, the government must look at the impact of this situation to paddy farmers in terms of increasing in cost of production and the possibility of decrease in their income

There are many varieties of rice in the world with different shapes and sizes ranging from the long and slender to the short and tubby.

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In the world market as well as in Malaysia, much emphasis is placed on grain length and whiteness as a criterion of grade and quality. Other factors such as palatability characteristics (appearance, cohesiveness, tenderness and flavor) also constitute as important considerations in quality grading.

In Malaysia, the main varieties of rice found in retail outlets are ordinary local and imported white rice, brown unpolished rice and specialty rice such as fragrant rice, Basmati, parboiled and glutinous rice. The main criteria in the classification are length of grain, content of head rice, content of broken rice and milling degree.

-71755979805LOCAL WHITE RICE
261620-1079500 Rice-27305970280IMPORTED WHITE RICE
201295-127000-49530998855BROWN RICE
-14605929005FARGRANT RICE
204470-9017000 210821-52069001270986155BASMATI WHITE RICE
1885951460500552451033780PONNI RICE

185420-7556500 -8255962660RED RICE
220346-5651400 -11430915035JAPONICA RICE

We can use technology while producing rice from paddy. Machine that we used is called Rice Huller. A rice huller or rice husker is an agricultural machine used to computerize the process of removing the chaff (the external husks) of grains of rice. Since forever, there have been various techniques to hull rice. These machines are most generally created and used throughout Asia where the most popular type is the  HYPERLINK “” o “Engelberg Huller Company” Engelberg huller designed by German Brazilian engineer  HYPERLINK “” o “Evaristo Conrado Engelberg” Evaristo Conrado Engelberg in Brazil in 1885.

First process is Preparation. Prior to planting, minimal soil control is needed to get ready for cultivation. If the rice will be produced on a uneven landscape (hilly terrain), the area must be leveled into terraces. Paddies are leveled and surrounded by barriers or levees with the aide of earth-moving hardware. At that point, the fields are plowed before planting.
Second step is Planting. Rice seeds are soaked before planting. Depending on the level of mechanization and the size of the planting, seeding happens in three different ways. Numerous Asian countries that haven’t mechanized their farming practices, seeds are sown by hand. After 30-50 days of development, the seedlings are transplanted in groups from nursery beds to paddies. Seeds can also be sown using a machine called a drill that places the seed in the ground.
Next is Harvesting. Once the plants have reached full growth (approximately three months after planting) and the grains begin to ripen—the tops begin to droop and the stem yellows—the water is drained from the fields. As the fields dry, the grains ripen further and harvesting is commenced. This practice still occurs in many Asian countries.
Fourth step is Drying. Before milling, rice grains must be dried in order to decrease the moisture content to between 18-22%. This is done with artificially heated air or, more often, with the help of naturally occurring sunshine. Rice grains are left on racks in fields to dry out naturally. Once dried, the rice grain, now called rough rice, is ready for processing.

Hulling. Hulling can be done by hand by rolling or grinding the rough rice between stones. However, more often it is processed at a mill with the help of automated processes. The rough rice is first cleaned by passing through several sieves that sift out the debris. Once clean, the rice is hulled by a machine that mimics the action of the handheld stones.
Milling. Since it retains the outer bran layers of the rice grain, brown rice needs no other processing. That is one of the reasons why brown rice is milled further to create a more visually appealing white rice. The brown rice runs through two huller machines that remove the outer bran layers from the grain.
Enriching. The milling process that produces white rice also removes much of the vitamins and minerals found primarily in the outer bran layers. Once complete, the rice is called converted rice. White rice is converted in one of two ways. Once done, the rice is steamed, dried, and then milled..left571500
For each 1 Billion people added to the total population the world, 100 million more tons of rice (paddy) should be produced annually. In any case, the challenges facing rice production are extraordinary. To help ensure food security, reduce poverty, and help vulnerable populations adjust to the impacts of climate change, more rice should be produced on less land, with less water and less labor. These are some of the challenges we faced while produce rice.

First challenge is food security. Means that if increase in population, the demand of rice (paddy) will also increase while supply of rice (paddy) will decrease. Based on population projections from the United Nations and income projections from the Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI), demand for rice around the world is expected to increase from 439 million tons (milled rice) in 2010 to 496 million tons in 2020, to 555 million tons in 2035. This is a general increase of 26% in the following 25 years, although the demand will decrease over time as population growth slows and people diversify from rice to other foods.
Second challenge is climate changes. Climate change may have a positively impact on rice production in few regions. For example, increase in temperature might enable more rice production to occur in the northern regions of countries such as China, or growing two rice crops where, up to this point, only one can be developed every year. However, most climate change impacts and the overall impact of climate change on rice are probably going to be negative. The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) report Climate Change: Impact on Agriculture and Costs of Adaptation forecasts that by 2050 rice cost will increase between 32 and 37% because of result of climate change. They demonstrate that rice productivity will decrease by 14% in South Asia, 10% in East Asia and the Pacific, and 15% in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Third challenge is gender roles in rice-based agriculture. Women contribute fundamentally more to rice-based agriculture than men. Women frequently have specific tasks such as transplanting, weeding, or harvesting or reaping. Their participation in rice production differs by nation, production systems, type of household. Studies on the gender division of labor in produce rice reveals that women in Southeast Asia contribute 25–60% of the required labor; in South Asia it is as high as 60–80%. In Africa, 80% of Africa’s food is developed by Africa’s 100 million rural women. Women embrace a significant the work in traditional rainfed, mangrove, and upland rice in Africa. They are essentially in charge for ensuring household food, health, and nutritional security. 
Rice is the staple food of 3 billion people, providing one-fifth of calories consumed worldwide. Its cultivation is responsible for at least 10% of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions and 9 to 19 percent of global methane emissions. That is because flooded rice paddies are ideal anaerobic environments for methane-producing microbes that feed on decomposing organic matter, a process known as methanogenesis. There are four general techniques, best used in combination, to improve rice production.

First is water. Mid-season drainage and alternate wetting and drying improves aerobic conditions. Next is Nutrients. More balanced application of nutrients reduces methane emissions while supporting yields. Besides, Plant varieties. Rice varieties (cultivars) that are less water-loving can be used in more aerobic environments. Lastly, Tillage. Techniques for seeding rice without tilling the ground maintain stable soils. These techniques can make rice production efficient, dependable, and sustainable, helping to meet growing demand for this staple food without causing warming. Mid-season drainage alone reduces methane emissions by 35 to 70 percent.
In conclusion, Malaysia’s paddy and rice industry has been given extraordinary attention by the government from pre-independence to post-independence times for different purposes, for example, to alleviate poverty and improve the SSL. The rice industry in Malaysia has enhance far as of yield and SSL after various efforts are taken by the government. Paddy farmers are the most people who benefited by all these incentives and economic development in paddy and rice industries. Income and status of living of paddy farmers were rise since incentives and subsidies are introduced. The solid efforts by the government in the rice industry are to help the rice industry and to achieve the 100% SSL by 2020.


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