P2 images are stored in different graphic formats.

P2 Explain how different types of graphic images relate to file formatsGraphics are of two types – bitmap and vector. This is caused by using two completely different approaches to creating and storing display image.

When selecting bitmap or vector format, you need to define the task of working with the image. If you want the photographic quality of color transfer, the choice will be a bitmap image. Vector format is best for displaying and processing logos, schemes, animations (2D- 3D).

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Vector – Creating an image in computer graphics from a set of geometric primitives (points, lines, curves, polygons), that is, objects that can be described by mathematical expressions. Vector graphics for describing the image uses vectors, as opposed to bitmap graphics, which describes the image as an array of pixels (dots).Bitmap – is part of computer graphics, which deals with the creation, processing and storage of pixelated  images. A bitmap image is an array of colored points (pixels).

Bitmap graphics processing is performed by pixel graphic editors. Raster images are stored in different graphic formats. Picture FormatsJPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) – the format of storing graphic information that uses lossy compression.

Losses and distortion of information through the degree of compression may already occur in custom programs. The permissible compression level depends on the nature of the image and usually exists within 1:10. JPEG format is often used as a data format in digital cameras. On the Internet, the JPEG format is used to display half-tone artwork and graphic information with a smooth transition of tones. JPEG format, unlike GIF and PNG, does not support either animation or transparency. The scope of the format is rather narrow – the distribution of high-quality halftone graphics on the Internet. The format is supported by virtually all modern graphic applications and web browsers.

GIF ( Graphics Interchange Format) – An 8-bit pixel graphic format that uses up to 256 transparent colors from the 24-bit RGB range. The format was developed by CompuServe in 1987, and since then has gained widespread popularity on the World Wide Web due to its relative simplicity and portability. One of the main features of the format is the support for animation and transparency.

The GIF format supports animated images, they represent a sequence of multiple static frames, as well as information about how much time each frame should be displayed on the screen. The animation can be cyclic. The animation in the GIF animation can be used to not completely save the next frame, but only to change the next frame relative to the previous one.PNG (Portable Network Graphics ) – The format of storing graphic information that uses lossless compression. PNG was created to replace the GIF format with a graphic format that does not require a license to use.

Typically, PNG files have an extension. The PNG format is characterized by a higher compression ratio for files with more colors than the GIF, but the difference is about 5-25%, which is not enough for the absolute advantage of the format, because the small GIF images are compressed at least not worse. There is also one GIF feature that does not repeat PNG – it is the ability to save multiple images, especially animations.RAW – a data format containing raw data that avoids loss of information and does not have a clear specification. These files contain full information about the stored signal. That is, the negative does not represent the image directly, but has all the necessary information to create the image.

In addition, the process of converting raw image files in a clear format is sometimes referred to as processing the raw image, similar to the process of film manifestation. The choice of the final selection of image representation is part of the process of white balance and color correction.PDF – open file format, created and supported by Adobe Systems, for the presentation of two-dimensional documents in the form independent of the output device and resolution. Each PDF file can contain complete information about a 2D document, such as: texts, images, vector images.TIF – the graphic format developed by Adobe in 1987 as one of the basic universal formats for representing high-quality images used in the printing industry. Despite the fact that the format is rather old, it has not lost its positions and is still widely used for its intended purpose.

Colour modules –  there are two types of colour moduels RGB and CYMK .RGB is an additive color model that describes a method for color synthesis, in which red, green, and blue light overlap, mixing in a variety of colors. Widely used in techniques that reproduce the image with the help of radiation from the light. In this model, the color is encoded by gradation of component constituents. Therefore, for increasing the value of the gradation of a channel – its intensity increases during synthesis.

The number of graduations of each channel depends on the bit bit value of RGB. Typically, a 24-bit model is used, which determines 8 bits per channel, and therefore the number of graduations is 256, which allows you to encode 2563 = 16 777 216 colors. The RGB color model is intended to perceive, represent and display images in electronic systems such as television and computers, although it was also used in a traditional photo.

Even before the epoch, the RGB model had a serious theory based on the perception of human colors.Advantages of the modelHardware proximity to monitor, scanner, projector, and other devices;Great color gamma, close to the possibilities of human vision;Availability of many image processing functions (filters) in raster graphics programs;Small (compared with the CMYK model) volume, but wider range of colors.Disadvantages Preservation of the probability of error displaying colors on the monitor screen – not in accordance with the colors obtained as a result of color proofing.CMYK is a subtractive color model used in printing, especially in multi-color printing. It is used in color printers. Each color in CMYK is described by a set of four numbers, which are called color coordinates. Each of these numbers is the percentage of color of the given color in the component color combination. Example: To get the dark orange color, you should mix 30% cyan paint, 45% magenta paint, 80% yellow paint and 5% color black.

This color can be written as: (30,45,80,5). Sometimes use the other symbols: C30M45Y80K5.Compression –  can be lossy or lossless.  Lossless compression means that when compressing the file size, the image quality remains unchanged – it does not get worse. Also, the file can be decomposed to its original quality.

Lossy compression permanently deletes data and therefore decrease quality of a graphic image.D1 evaluate how different delivery mediums for graphics influence file formats WEB –  we are using web delivery very often for different purposes starting from sosial media and finishing with media sharing. All of these areas need a catchy experience. Nowadays people do not relay on word description but very often on pictures and how they are presented is key to success. JPG is probably the most common image format used on the web. It is very compatible and can boast a small file size with very little noticeable loss of quality.

JPG is compressed using what is called “loss” of compression, which means that the quality of the loss always persists. This loss is especially noticeable in the text and in small details. Known as “artefacts,” this loss of quality looks like small, blocked elements.

Look at the difference in the following comparison, especially around the detailed edges of flower petals.JPG compression is still optimized for photos, making artifacts virtually invisible to the naked eye. But do not forget: every time the photo is saved, the number of artifacts will increase. Always leave a good idea to keep a copy of your original lossless compression.JPG stores DPI information (dots per inch) and remains the standard format for printing.

However, they do not support the transparency of the background and can not be easily applied to other elements. When you save a JPG image, it is definitely the best choice compared to a lossless format, such as PNG. The following example does not show a noticeable visual contrast. The size of the file, however, is doubled by size.PNG is another very common and versatile image format that is discovered on the Internet today. With lossless compression, you can save PNG and not lose quality. However, this (in most cases) will give a very large file size. PNG is not an option when it comes to printing, since it does not support the 4-color process (CMYK).

PNG is the best format for screenshots, and most computers will automatically save screenshots as PNGs. PNG compression is optimized for graphic images and images that use less than 16 colors. If you follow us on Facebook, you are familiar with our weekly fonts. These graphs are stored as PNGs. Note the difference between the PNG version and the JPG version.GIF is a growing force on the Internet now. This format is an excellent choice for limited color images that should be small in size.

Photos and full color images saved in GIF format will result in high compression with a noticeable loss of quality.The unique feature of the GIF format is its ability to be animated. Despite the fact that in recent years, this functionality has declined, accurate and focused animation with a GIF image can only draw attention to the call to action or other event on your site.TIF is known as the most popular image format, is best used for commercial work and should not be used on the Internet. Keep a copy of TIF for original photos as it provides lossless compression. However, if you are using the Internet, be sure to export as JPG.MOBILE PHONES – Which one is the best format for using apps? The question is whether this precision is needed in each individual case.

It turns out that the SVG format has such advantages as, it is not very weigh, so it will load faster, looks good on high DPI displays, fully flexible and scalable. The PNG format has the following factor in its favor and is stability.Magazines NewspapersBillboard


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