Ovulationwhich is the release an egg from ovaries can be a problem for women withanovulation because this means no ovulation happens causing infertility, thiscan happen because of many types of conditions such as PCOS which causes ahormonal imbalance of testosterone in body which is a male hormone andirregular menstrual cycle this is bad because it would mean that eggs aren’tgoing to be released regularly so sperm wouldn’t be able to fertilise egg forconception.
Anotherproblem that can cause anovulation is endometriosis which is a condition wherethe tissue lining of the womb grows outside of there to other body parts likethe fallopian tube which can cause damage to the ovaries meaning difficulty inbecoming pregnant, this can also cause blocked fallopian tubes which is badbecause this would mean that sperm and egg wouldn’t be able to becomefertilized as this is the tube they meet inside, however if one fallopian tubeis blocked this is less likely to have affect as it could still be possible forfertilisation in the other side. Also another condition is being under weightfor example suffering from anorexia this can cause conceptions problems becauseyou will become very thin therefore means having no ability to carry a baby soyou would stop ovulating, another eating disorder is being overweight forexample having diabetes this would increase the risks happening when becomingpregnant such as miscarriages which is losing the baby or risk the baby beingborn early, even though this could happen to anyone who is not overweight thechances are higher when overweight. Abnormalities in oocyte development can happenas women age which also causes problems with conception because of a higherrisk of miscarriages, and higher risk of child being born with a geneticdisorder down’s syndrome which is because of a trisomy condition meaning thereis extra copies of chromosomes in the egg, turners syndrome is another geneticdisorder a child risks of being born as a women ages because of monosomycondition which is child having parts of diploid chromosomes missing. These areboth aneuploidy as there aren’t the correct amount of chromosomes in gamete nucleus as the usual which is 46chromosome zygote, 23 haploid each, from male and female gamete because ofabnormal chromosomes.Hypothyroidismthis is when thyroid glands don’t produce enough of hormones that are importantand can cause infertility because the low levels of hormone can mean that thisinterferes with ovulation, this can be treated by medication which stopshormones producing more hormones that aren’t needed or surgery which removesthyroid for example if they are swollen badly however this would mean thatmedication is needed to be taken after because of not having a thyroid.When youstart to get older the number of eggs and quality start to decrease which isknown as menopause, so you are more likely to have issues if you becomepregnant at an older stage like after the age of 40 there is a higher risk ofmiscarriages and there could be genetic disorders because of congenital birthdefects which is a condition developed before or after giving birth andovulation stops and uterine environment changes.Mostconception problems for females can be treated for example a hysterectomy is asurgery to treat these problems like for cancer or for menopause by removingthe uterus but will mean that you will not be able to become pregnant after anddoes have complications such as could cause damage to the bladder or causeinfection.
We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!
Another treatment can be a hormone replacementtherapy which helps manage the symptoms of menopause like mood swings and hotflashes, it also helps prevent bones from becoming weaker but does havecomplications as it cause side effects like headaches and nausea and on themore serious side can cause higher risk of getting cancer.When havingovulation problems such as a low supply of FSH hormone, fertility medicines canbe taken to help with this by helping to improve and stimulate ovulation so theeggs mature which is good because this means that an egg will be released forfertilisation therefore to conceive, but if the medicines don’t work thensurgery can be used for example for endometriosis a laparoscopic surgery andthis destroys the cysts which are fluid sac. Another type of surgery you couldhave is fallopian tube surgery which is for fallopian tubes that have scars orblocked, this would need to be fixed by making sure the eggs go through thetubes much simpler which is done by breaking up the scar tissue, however thiswill have complications such as a fertilized egg that implants an ectopicpregnancy which is when an egg that has been fertilised implants outside theuterus like inside fallopian tube so will have to be removed and there will beno pregnancy.Intrauterineinsemination which is artificial insemination can be used by from donors orpartner by inserting sperm into uterus, when doing this the sperm collected arethe best quality sperm which have a fast mobility with oval head and long tailwhich is the morphology of sperm.
IVF which can also help with fertilisation byfertilising an egg outside the body in a petri dish with a sperm from the eggsthat are removed from ovaries and after this is completed its put inside backinto the uterus.MaleSperm canalso be a cause of infertility in men for example a low sperm count can meanthat there is a lower chance of fertilising an egg, or sperm that has anabnormal shape this is bad because it means that it will be harder for thesperm to swim to the egg for it to become fertilised. Epididymis is inside thetesticles which contains and transports sperm but this can become blockedmeaning that sperm cannot be ejaculated which can also cause infertility, howeverthis can be treated by surgery to stop the blockage which is good as thisincreases chances of sperm being able to fertilise egg and therefore be able tofertilise an egg.Erectiledysfunction is the inability to get and maintain an erection this means thatpenetrative sex which is the way that sexual reproduction work is to take spermfrom male to female’s cervix and this means that it will be difficult todeliver the sperm. It can happen because of many problems such as with age,high blood pressure, and depression. The treatment depends on the cause forexample if there is a hormone problem then testosterone is a hormonereplacement to help treat the problem and a medicine called Viagra can be takento increase pressure of blood flowing in order to achieve an erection.Antibodiesthese are part of the immune system which are for protection and support but ifthe barriers between sperm and blood break down which can happen because ofsurgery or infection and sertoli cells for support and protection will beattacked by the white blood cells because they are seen as invaders thatshouldn’t be there therefore act as a defence and develop anti perm antibodiesmeaning that the sperm would then have very slow movement causing infertility,this can also be treated with IVF.