Our to extract from earth, and more convenient.

Our lives are fueled (literally) by energy resources. Everything we do nowadays depends on our energy resources. Our homes, schools, hospitals, and factories are all powered by electricity. Even though electricity is important, it has many drawbacks that affect our planet and daily life. Our health and planet are affected by the electricity power plants. Some resources when burned are extremely harmful, while other are not. As Egyptians, we need to work on improving our electricity conditions in order to live a better life. Numerous countries use non-renewable energy resources; such as oil, coal, and natural. These resources are cheaper, easier to extract from earth, and more convenient. However, these resources have a negative impact on the environment and people’s health. Moreover, the amount of oil and natural gas on the earth is decreasing dramatically. Therefore, we need to identify the crisis and possible solutions for the 20 years in order to prevent disasters.On the other hand, renewable resources are good for the environment. Some consider more expensive; however, it does not release any toxic gases. Some of the renewable resource are: solar energy, hydroelectric energy, wind energy, and geothermal energy. Each of theses resources has its own properties, and each is easily found and harmful to earth. The world is growing every minute, and so is our energy consumption.  In 1990, the global energy consumption was about 8,100 Mtoe (Million Tonnes of oil equivalent). In 2016, the global energy consumption increased to 13,276   Mtoe.(1)According to Enerdata, the breakdown by energy resource was 21% gas, 27% coal, 32% oil, and 11% biomass. In another statistic, it is calculated that globally we use 76% non renewable energy resources and 24% renewable. The countries that use the most renewable resources, such as New Zealand and Norway, are not the countries that actually consume the most energy resources, such China and United States, which produce about 5,000 Mtoe together. (2)These statistics are very similar to egypts statistics, only on a bigger scale. About 20 years ago, Egypt’s consumption in energy resources was 34 Mtoe. On the other hand, today, Egypt consumes more than 90 Mtoe.(1)In Egypt, we use 40% oil, 54% oil, 2% coal, and 4% other. In Egypt, matter are worse. The energy consumption is 90% non-renewable and 10% renewable.  In 2016, Egypt’s CO2 emissions were 188 MtCo2, which is considered a great amount. Problems caused by fossil fuels (non-renewable resources):Global warming (green gas emissions): Global warming occurs when green gases, such as carbon dioxide, is released from burning fossil fuels. The released gases are then collected in the atmosphere. These gases are trapped in the atmosphere and cause the earth to heat up. This can cause climate change, gloabl warming, and dramatic changes in temperature. “In 2016, the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine announced that it’s now possible to confidently attribute certain weather events, like some heat waves, directly to climate change.” (3)2. Air pollution:Another problem we face because of green gas emissions is air pollution. Air pollution is caused by emissions from factories and cars. It can be seen in the smog above cities. It affects people’s health. On the long-term, it can cause lung and heart diseases. On the short-term, it can cause eye irritation, coughing, or difficulty in breathing. (4)Some of the countries with high air pollution levels are Saudi Arabia and China. Egypt is the third country with highest air pollution rates, after Saudi Arabia and Qatar.(5) 3. Acid Rain:A third problem caused by burning fossil fuels is acid rain. Acid rain occurs when gases such as sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) are released into the atmosphere. These gases come from burning fossil fuels. As rain falls, it mixes with these gases and fall on to the ground in the form of acidic precipitation.(6) The acidic rain can cause water to become toxic to aquatic animals. It can also damage forests as it robs important nutrients from the soil and makes in difficult for trees to grow.(7)Solutions:There are several solutions that we, as a country, can do in order to reduce our usage of fossil fuels and in result reduce our pollution rates.  The main solution that governments should take action in is replacing non-renewable energy resources with renewable energy resources. Some of these resources may include:Solar Energy:Solar energy is one of the most convenient energies in Egypt. Egypt is located in a desert; therefore, it has an abundant amount of sunlight. A suggested idea is that we can place solar panels in different desserts in Egypt and place generators to produce electricity. A typical solar panel produces 300 watts. 167 solar panels can produce 50 kw (kilowatts) which is about ? of Egypt’s power consumption. (8)(9)  Solar is energy is a renewable resource and it has almost no connection to pollution. It will also reduce electricity bills. However, buying and transporting the solar panels is expensive. It also depends on the weather, so a few stormy days may result in electricity cut offs. (10) Hydroelectric Energy:Hydroelectric energy is an energy that we already use in Egypt. Hydroelectricity is produced in the dams along the Nile River, especially the Aswan High Dam. In hydropower, Egypt produced 13.2 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity. In addition, the Egyptian government is planning to improve its hydroelectric power stations and construct even more.(11) Hydropower is pollution free since its powered by water found in rivers and oceans. Hydropower benefits may also include water supply and flood control. Some disadvantages can include a decrease in fish population if they can not migrate from place to place. It can also impact the water flow. One of the main disadvantages is if the water flow decreases, the power plant would not be able to produce electricity.(12)


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