Organisational behaviour is defined as ‘a field of study that investigates the impact of individuals, groupsand structure have on behaviour within organisations, for the purpose of applying such knowledgetowards improving an organisation’s effectiveness’. Organisation within the workforce is a crucial factorinvolved in order for managers to be able to run a successful and effective business. There are someaspects that are important in order for that success to be achieved, this can vary from leadership within aset team, individual and group work. These characteristics need to be combined together in order for themanager to create a successful organisational structure, which is essentially the main aim for thebusiness. There are theorists who put forward their argument with regards to this topic, there are manyadvantages and disadvantages when it comes to an organisation and the role of managers within thatorganisation. There are also many case studies that can be put forward as they also highlight managerialimplications within an organisation in the real world. Organisational behaviour is the study of both group and individual performance as well as activity withinan organisation.
It also consists of many different topics such as leadership, teamwork, environment anddecision making. As Organisational behaviour studies the impact of these topics on human behaviour,other fields like Psychology, Sociology and Politics also share their understandings and perspectives. Stogdill (1950) defined leadership as an influential process that achieves organisational objectives.(Northouse, 2004) ‘Leadership can be defined in terms of power relationship that exists between leadersand followers. From this viewpoint, leaders have power and wield it to effect change in others.’ This viewsuggests that leaders have a great deal of responsibility as it is through them that their followers will setvisions, look up to them as role models and be able to gain individualised attention.
Leaders also have acrucial role of making workers feel motivated in order for the organisation to be successful. According tothis website online (MSG experts) “It is essential to understand that leadership is an essential part ofeffective management. As a crucial component of management, remarkable leadership behaviourstresses upon building an environment in which each and every employee develops and excels.” Fromthis we can see that leadership is a crucial factor in a business organisation as a successful leader canhave the power to motivate a team.
Arguably, it could be said that to be a good leader one needs to have a certain number of qualities andshould be able to know the right time to use them in order to motivate and encourage their team.Certain traits that leaders often have are good communication skills, loyalty, trust, be able to set a visionor a goal for their peers. There are different approaches and styles of leadership. The TransformationalLeadership theory and the Transactional Leadership theory are both part of the “New Leadership”paradigm. The two theories were developed in the late 20th Century by Burns (1978) in his analysis ofpolitical leaders. Transformational leadership is a process that changes and transforms individuals. Itinvolves emotions, values, ethics, standards and long term goals, it also includes the followers motive, their needs and treating them as human beings.
Transactional leadership on the other hand focuses onsupervision and performance, it’s a style of leadership in which leader promotes compliance by followersthrough both rewards and punishments. According to (Northouse,2004) ‘it’s a process that incorporates charismatic and visionary leadership.’ Anexample of a charismatic leader could be Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. He was a great leader and speakerand through his speech ‘I had a dream’ he brought people of all races together and he made them feelequal.
Bass (1985) then expanded the transformational leadership theory that was proposed by Burns, hestated that this motivation could be achieved by raising awareness about the importance these outcomesand the ways in which they can be reached. (Givens,2008) Bass also argued that leaders encouragefollowers to go beyond self- interest for the good of the team. The transformational leadership theoryplaces a lot of emphasis on charisma and more support towards followers whereas the transactionalleadership places a lot of emphasis and shows support towards the leader themselves. Thetransformational leadership theory is used by many big organisations today, and one of them is Google.According to an online article Big Bang Impact (2011) CEO Larry Page wants to make a difference in thecompany and become a strong motivated leader, this can be done through Transformational Leadership.”he is determined to change attitudes as well as behaviors of people inside the company. This type ofleadership is impossible to accomplish without trust.
” This statement shows that as the leader he isplacing a lot of emphasis on his employees and trying to be a charismatic leader that makes all thefollowers feel motivated and driven. He ensures that every employee has the opportunity to discuss totheir ideas and these ideas would be taken into consideration. There are many advantages and disadvantages when using the two theories in an organisation. Thetransformational theory creates an enthusiastic work environment and allows an organisation to becomemore innovative, individuals tend to work through self-motivation therefore it would guarantee a higherlevel of efficiency and output which would benefit both the managers and the organisations. Anotheradvantage of the theory is that it considers and prioritises the needs of the followers and incorporatesboth the leaders’ and followers’ needs. (Northouse,2004) As a result it shows that leadership is not thesole responsibility of the leader but it is the interplay between leaders and followers.
However, adisadvantage of the theory being used on managers and organisations is that accordingto(Futureofworking.com,2016) and (Liu, C.2007) it creates heroism in the leader and does notacknowledge the participation of employees.
The transformational theory emphasises and praises theresponsibility of a leader while completely ignoring the work of followers. Consequently, this maydemotivate the followers instead of motivating them as their hard work is not getting recognised.Although this theory may initially benefit the managers, it may not benefit the organisation as theoutcomes may not be as successful as the theory claims to be. Another approach that could be used in organisational behaviour to benefit managers and organisationsis working in teams. According to (Katzenbach & Smith, 1993) team work can be defined as “smallnumber of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performanceand goals for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.” Team work is essential as the wholepoint of working together is common commitment. With common commitment the team will then become a powerful unit of collective performance which increases the chances of success for anorganisation.
It can be said that working in a team can have a positive effect on workers as they feelmotivated to achieve their level best, the same goes for team leaders and managers of organisations. Tuckman (1965) developed a theory on group work and this is based from his previous work. He createda model that consists of 5 stages; Forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.The first stage is Forming and at this stage most team members won’t have fully understood the workthat their team will do and they tend to be anxious. In the first stage the leader is likely to play adominant role as the role of each member won’t be clear therefore the leader would have to beresponsible for it. However once the team members get to know each other better, they then move ontothe second stage which is the storming stage. And this is the stage where people will start to push againstboundaries they established in the formation stage and begin to voice their opinions.
This is also thestage where some teams fail and many conflicts arise between team members due to the differences inworking style and certain disagreements. However once the members overcome the second stage theythen start to understand each other better and begin to work even stronger as a group. The third stage is known as the norming stage, and during this stage the team will develop shared valuesand resolve their differences. Every member in the group would have a clear understanding of their rolesand responsibilities, and the commitment and unity would begin to be very strong. Once the norm hasbeen achieved, the team would then move onto the fourth stage which is the performing stage.
Performance is achieved through strong understanding and a great bond between all the team members.At this stage all members would clearly know their roles, and the level of motivation and dedicationwould be high as everyone in the team would be driven to aim for success. Tuckman (1975) refined his own theory later on and added a fifth stage called the adjourning stagewhich is also known as deforming.
This is the stage where the team break-up after hopefully completingthe given task successfully, and everyone can move on to do their own things with the feeling that theyhave successfully completed their task. Tuckman’s model backs up and supports the idea that teamwork is efficient and would benefit both themanagers and the organisations. His model shows that in each stage the groups begin to evolve andunderstand each other better. Teamwork can be a crucial element that can help both the workers andthe managers in an organisation.
Managers can see the difference of how individuals perform on theirown and in a team with other people who have similar skills and qualities. Teamwork is also beneficial forthe manager themselves as it would help them improve their leadership skills in certain areas. Themanager should be able to spot specific problems in the different stages of the model. For example, inthe storming stage, they should be able to identify the issue and also be able to quickly solve it before itbecomes a bigger issue. Again, Google are known for their unique organisational structure and teamwork.
Google use teamwork for both the benefit of its organisation and managers. Anonymous (2016)said that members of productive teams take the effort to understand each other, find a way to relate toeach other, and then try to make themselves understood. Making each other feel comfortable andmotivated will allow everyone in the team to have a clear vision of the goal they are aiming for and asresult each member will have a clear idea of what is excepted of them. With good teamwork and a clear vision, groups are likely to have a high level of motivation and as a result this will increase the level ofproductivity. Google is an example of a successful management and it shows some evidence thatsuccessful and efficient teamwork does have an influence on an organisation to a certain extent.
Team work is not always an advantage for the organisation, there some disadvantages that occur to boththe managers and the organisations. An advantage of working in teams is that there’s accountability forweak areas in the team. According to a website article Chron (2016) “Working as a team not only helps toshowcase people’s various strengths, but can also allow for compensation of weaker areas as well.
” Bybeing able to work in teams, members can work together and tackle areas where they are weaker andfeel that they should improve. This is an advantage for the organisation and the managers because itwould create a stronger workforce which will improve the efficiency and outcome of an organisation, andas a result it would create a successful organisation. Managers would also benefit from team work asthey would be able to improve their leadership skills and social skills. Working in teams improves workrelationships because when people work together, they not only invest a lot of time on their task but alsoon each other and eventually they will begin to support one another. Therefore, this would improve thequality and efficiency of work thus leading to a successful organisation. A disadvantage of teamwork in some organisations is that it is difficult to assess the work of individualcontribution therefore there is chance that some people in the team worked harder than others.
Thissometimes demotivated certain member as they might not feel like they are receiving any rewards fortheir work. And another issue that follows this is ‘Social loafing’, according to (Buchanan and Huczynski,2016) social loafing can be defined as the tendency of individuals to exert less effort when working aspart of group than when working alone. This is a disadvantage for the organisation because if everyindividual begins to put less effort in their team, then the final outcome would not be as successful. In conclusion, studying organisational behaviour benefits both the managers and the organisation as itgives a better insight of the factors that affect behaviour of both individual and groups within anorganisation and how they can be managed. Studies show that it is important for managers tounderstand organisational behaviour because it plays a huge role in the success of an organisation.
Thereare many research and evidence that show that leadership and teamwork have a positive impact on boththe organisations and the managers. Research shows that effective leadership has a huge impact onorganisations. By using leadership, people can gain power and be able to control certain situations, asleaders they will then have the ability to resolve conflicts like the ones that may occur in the stormingstage of Tuckman’s model, they will be able to communicate more effectively. Research also shows thatworking in teams increases productivity level and performances are much higher compared to individualwork. The outcome of working in teams becomes more successful.