Organ trafficking is one of the most upcoming
issues in the world today. It has been concerning the World Health Organization
for more than three decades. Due to organ shortage only 10% of the estimated
organ transplantations are performed each year, according to WHO, a fact that
leads to illegal organ trafficking and trade. Organ trafficking is the trade of
human organs, tissues or other body parts for the purpose of transplantation.
Impoverished people from developing and underdeveloped countries are the main
group targeted by illegal organ trade. Organ Trafficking was initially declared
illegal by WHO in 1987, stating that such trade violates human rights. Then at
the 44th World Health Assembly the principles made clear that organs
cannot be a subject of financial transaction, and last but not least, the 57th
World Health Assembly of 2004 amended slightly those guidelines, promoting them
to be embedded in the laws of the member states.
Italy is a high developed country and one of
the largest economies among other European countries. Italian citizens enjoy excellent
health provisions, by paying nominal fees. The Italian Government is an active
member in missions against organ trafficking and illegal transplantations. Italy
has signed many conventions, like “The UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and
punish Trafficking in Persons” in 2002 and “The Guiding Principles on Human
organ Transplantation” in 1991. In 2015 Italy was one of 14 nations to ratify
an international convention against organ trafficking in Strasbourg, which condemns
organ trade as well as anyone who publicizes organs for sale. Furthermore,
Italy has also made actions against countries that promote organ trafficking
and trying to legalize organ trade. Italian authorities have not only arrested
smugglers and hospital personnel involved in the black organ market in the
past, but are also constantly in high alert in order to help reducing this
phenomenon in a regional and worldwide level.
As a member of the UN, WHO and the European
Union, it is Italy’s top priority that the issue of illegal organ trafficking
and transplantations is solved once and for all. As an individual, Italy is not
only supporting and attending the conventions about the topic, but is also
trying to bring their resolutions in life through actions and debates.
Nevertheless, organ trafficking is an issue that demands international cooperation,
meaning that all nations should adopt similar policies to resolve this matter.
Trafficking in human organs is a serious threat to public and global health and
often linked to organized crime. All member states should raise awareness about
illegal organ trafficking and trade, promote the idea of organ donations and
give donors a motive, so as to reduce the organ shortage and decreasing illegal
trade of human parts too. Italy will continue to engage in advocacy and set a