ONYCHOPHAGIA – AN AWARENESS BASED SURVEY IN ITS SITUATION AMONG SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION
Type of manuscript : Survey article
Running title : Onychophagia and its situations
Tasleem Abitha S
Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University
Dr. Karthick Ganesh. K .
Department of Anatomy
Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University
Mr. Yuvaraj Babu
Department of Anatomy
Saveetha Dental College
162, Poonamallee High Road
Chennai = 600077
Tamil Nadu, India.
Faculty Email ID :
Telephone : +91 98402 10597
To note the situations in which people do nail biting and to create awareness among South indian Population.
MATERIALS AND METHOD
A group of nail biters were selected and examined with the questionnaire prepared about the situations in which they often follow the habit of nail biting. The information collected through the survey is analysed and presented in statistics.
From the survey it is recorded that, every age people take up this nail biting as a habit in various situations to relax there stress, as a sign of breaking there anger, even in immense excitement. So hence from the current study it is recorded to be that, n number of people follow this habit as a stress buster more during there boredom.
Nail biting is an unhealthiest bad habit, which looks gross for the people who view it from outside. People who are not warned by there parents and guardians from there childhood end up developing this to be an chronic disease facing side effects in there oral parts, hands, and internal organs.
And there are number of people, who doesn’t follow this to be an habit, but do nail biting only during certain situations. There side effects are lesser and not more dangerous when compared to those of chronic nail biters. Hence among South Indian population, there perspective among the dangers and risks of onychophagia are clear cut, and they also approve with the side effects of there own habit. Yet, there determination and self control plays a vital role in quitting this nail biting habit permanently.
Nail-Biting, Side effects, Boredom, Relaxation, Anxiety, Preventions, Unhealthiest.
Onychophagia is a habit of compulsive nail biting. Nail-Biting is most commonly seen in both children and youth 1. Nail-biting is a disease like other habits which include hair twisting, tooth grinding, thumb-sucking, nose-picking, and picking at skin. 23 Nail-biting includes biting the soft tissue around the nail as well as biting the nail itself.
Boredom, Excitement, Fear, Stress and other emotional disorders are the main causes of onychophagia. Long term biting causes suffering, as a self-punishment which is more painful. The need to bite or eat fingernails are related to emotional state of anxiety.
Extreme nail-biting may also leads to short nails, bleeding around the nails, pain around the nail buds, damaged skin around the nail and tip of fingers, hard bumps. The ten fingernails are usually equally bitten to the same level.4
Nail-biting can be a source of guilt and shame feelings in the nail biter, a reduction in there lifestyle, and increased pressure / embarrassment n the inner family circles or at a more societal level 25.
Modern treatments and measures like manicure are there for the chronic nail biters. The most commonest and cheap treatment is applying a clear and bitter nail-polish, in which the bitter taste will discourage the nail-biting habit. 6 Another treatment for chronic nail biters is the usage of a dental deterrent device that prevents the front teeth from damaging the nails and the surrounding cuticles.After about two months, the device leads to a full oppression of the nail biting urge 7. Nail cosmetics can help to ameliorate nail biting social effects. 8
In children, it can also be a easily learned behaviour from there family members and neighbours. So parental advices regarding good and bad habits to there kids are most needed. 2 9
Moreover the persons self-control is the only way to quit nail biting completely.
To note the situations in which people do nail biting and to create awareness among South Indian Population.
MATERIALS AND METHOD
This was an online survey undertaken by using the link https://surveyplanet.com/
This survey was taken by about 107 people who follow the habit of nail biting.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
1. Is nail biting is a part of your habit ?
I do only in certain situations
2. In what common situations you bite your nails ?
While watching horror movies
When something is bothering you
All the above
None of the above
3. You do this with your self conscious?
4. Are you addicted to nail biting ?
5. You do nail biting even when you have any health issues ?
6. Have you experienced any instant stomachache due to nail biting?
7. Does nail biting gives you any relief ?
No, its painful
8. You do nail biting in a highly repetitive manner, in front of surroundings ?
Yes, I do without my own conscious
No, I maintain my self esteem
9. Do you bite your nails in front of kids, influencing them towards a bad habit ?
10. Are you aware of dangers due to Nail-biting ?
11. Have you undergone any dental problems ?
12. Are you aware of dental deterrent device ?
13. Have you tried transparent bitter nail polishes to quit nail biting ?
No, I’m not aware of it
14. What made you to take preventions to quit this habit ?
It’s spoiling my nails
Due to some health issues
Doctor and parental advices
15. Will you take any preventions from now on to quit this habit ?
16. Gender ?
Hundred and seven people were examined during the survey. Out of which 52 people are Chronic nail biters and the rest do nail biting in only certain situations. People often bite there nails without there own conscious and in it 64% of the people does this in there Boredom’s and excitement 1011.
Mostly, about 82% of the people in the survey were aware of the dangers and side effects of Onychophagia. The most easiest and quickest way to quit nail biting is by using bitter nail polishes, which’s taste will discourage the person to stop nail biting 12. 57 out of 107 People were not aware of the product.
The most surprising event noted in the survey was, majority of the people stop themselves from biting there nails in front of young people and especially kids, aiming not to influence the growing generation towards a bad habit 13.
It is also noted that more than 50% of the participants have experienced stomach ache and dental problems because of nail biting, from which it is clear that nail-biting can harm our body in any situation 14.
Nail biting is related to the oral problems, which includes malocclusion of the anterior teeth and gingival injury 215. Stomach ache is experienced by the individual who sucks the dirt around and swallow the bitten nails, which is apparently an most dangerous act followed by many chronic nail biters.
When the current study is compared with the research of Avesh Sachan and TP Chaturvedi’s, “Onychophagia (Nail biting), anxiety, and malocclusion,” it is observed that the past studies view on the physical Illnesses like Malocclusions, Stomach aches and gingival injuries co relates with the current study on the situations on onychophagia 16.
And when the current survey was compared with the research of Ahmad Ghanizadeh’s, ” Nail Biting; Etiology, Consequences and Management”, it is recorded that about 60% of the children do nail when they are nervous and scared, which coincides with the current study by about 45% 217.
The rate of depression among children matches around 74.5% in Ahmad Ghanizadeh’s research, “Association of nail biting and psychiatric disorders in children and their parents in a psychiatrically referred sample of children”, whereas in the current study it is noted to be about 47.6% among the growing kids 18.
From the surveys analysis it is noted that, 87.8% of the people wanted to quit nail biting permanently and they do have tried quitting it by following prevention methods, but ended up as failed attempts and continued with there biting habits again.
Children are getting easily attracted to some bad behaviours and they are making them as their influence, which allows the kid to continue with the bad habits. Hence, parental and guardians advices are most required for the young kids. For the adult chronic biters, they are preventive methods like daily meditation, applying bitter nail polishes, manicuring and making nails beautiful, so which people give more importance to beauty rather than biting and also technical methods like wearing Dental deterred devices, which is one most useful way to avoid nail biting among kids.
So above all, the individual with determination and self control can only find a permanent way to quit this Nail-Biting habit completely.
1. Besiroglu, L., Cilli, A. S., Askin, R. (2004). The predictors of health care seeking behavior in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 45, 99-108
2. Ghanizadeh, A (Jun 2011). ” Nail Biting; Etiology, Consequences and Management”. Iranian journal of medical sciences. (2): 73–9. PMC 3556753
3. Bohne A, Keuthen N, Wilhelm S (2005). “Pathologic hairpulling, skin picking, and nail biting”. Ann Clin Psychiatry. (4): 227–32.
4. Leung AK, Robson WL (1990). “Nailbiting”. Clin Pediatr (Phila). (12): 690–2.
5. Pacan, P; Reich, A; Grzesiak, M; Szepietowski, JC (Feb 17, 2014). “Onychophagia is Associated with Impairment of Quality of Life”. Acta dermato-venereologica. : 703–6.
6. Allen KW (March 1996).”Chronic nail biting : a controlled comparison of competing response and mild aversion treatment”.Behav Res Ther. (3): 269–72.
7. Davinroy, Donald L. (Oct 2, 2008), “Nail biting deterrent device and method” retrieved 2016-09-29
8. Iorizzo M, Piraccini BM, Tosti A (March 2007). “Nail cosmetics in nail disorders”. J Cosmet Dermatol. (1): 53–8.
9. Adesso, V. J., Norberg, M. M. (2001). Behavioral interventions for oral-digital habits. In Woods, D. W., Miltenberger, R. G. (Eds.), Tic disorders, trichotillomania, and other repetitive behavior disorders: Behavioral approaches to analysis and treatment (pp. 223-240). Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic
10. Azrin, N. H., Nunn, R. G. (1973). Habit-reversal: A method of eliminating nervous habits and tics. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 11, 619-628.
11. Heaton, K. W., Mountford, R. A. (1992). Nail-biting in the population and its relationship to irritable bowel syndrome. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 85, 457.
12. Silber, K. P., Haynes, C. E. (1992). Treating nailbiting: A comparative analysis of mild aversion and competing response therapies. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 30, 15-22.
13. Williams, T. I., Rose, R., Chisholm, S. (2007). What is the function of nail biting: An analog assessment study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 989-995.
14. Teng, E. J., Woods, D. W., Twohig, M. P. (2006). Habit reversal as a treatment for chronic skin picking: A pilot investigation. Behavior Modification, 30, 411-422.
15. Tanaka OM, Vitral RW, Tanaka GY, Guerrero AP, Camargo ES (August 2008). “Nailbiting, or onychophagia: a special habit”. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. (2): 305–8.
16. Avesh Sachan, TP Chaturvedi (2012). “Onychophagia (Nail biting), anxiety, and malocclusion”. 23 : 5 : 680-682
17. Ghanizadeh A, Shekoohi H. Prevalence of nail biting and its association with mental health in a community sample of children. BMC Res Notes. 2011;4:116.
18. Ghanizadeh A. Association of nail biting and psychiatric disorders in children and their parents in a psychiatrically referred sample of children. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health. 2008;2:13. doi:10.1186/1753-2000-2-13.
19. Salmon-Ehr V, Mohn C, Bernard P: Longitudinal melanonychia consecutive to nail biting. Annales De Dermatologie Et De Venereologie. 1999, 126: 44-45. Pubmed
20. Lyon LS: A behavioural treatment of compulsive lip biting. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 1983, 14: 275-276. 10.1016/0005-7916(83)90060-5. Pubmed