One of Bay that is frequently affected

One of the most
devastating natural disasters with socio-economic and environmental
consequences is flood (Rahmati et al. 2016). The World Health Organization
(WHO, 2003) report shows that among all other natural disaster, floods are the
most common affecting about 140 million people per year globally.

In the Philippines,
disastrous floods are common due to the magnitude of the hazard (Eleazar,
2011). In the province of Laguna, among the most recent disastrous flood events
were those caused by typhoon Ondoy (International Code Name Ketsana) and
succeeding typhoons in 2009 and the floods caused by excessive rains from the
Southwest monsoon as enhanced by typhoons Gener (International Code Name Saola)
and Haikui in 2012. Among the flood-prone municipalities surrounding the Laguna
Lake is the municipality of Bay (Lasco and Zamora, 2015). The study of the
World Bank in 2013 showed that lake water levels have exceeded the flood level
of 12.5 meters in 23 years, 13.0 meters in eight years and 13.5 m in four years
which led to the development of the Master Plan for Flood Management in Metro
Manila and Surrounding Areas. The Laguna Lake Development Authority in 2009, as
well as, Lasco and Espaldon in 2005 reported increased lake water level
occurrences up to 14.62 and 14.35 meters in 1919 and 1943, respectively. Likewise,
another increase in lake water levels up to 13.8 m causing flood event was
recorded in 2012 which is due to rains brought by the South West Monsoon (Lasco
and Zamora, 2015). One of the coastal barangays of the municipality of Bay that
is frequently affected by flood is Barangay Santo Domingo.

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Flooding is one of the
hazards that is frequently experienced in the Philippines causing damages not
only to properties and livelihood but even lives of people. It is for this
purpose that the government are doing their best to manage flooding. Indicators
used for estimation of a flood as hazard include flood depth, duration,
velocity and probability of flood occurrence (Zonensein et al. 2008). Risk, on
the other hand, is evolved into various modifications which consider other
elements like exposure, vulnerability, and adaptive or coping capacity
(Bantayan, 2014).

Santangelo et al.
(2011), defined susceptibility as the likelihood of a dangerous event occurring
in an area on the basis of local terrain conditions. This term is often used in
landslide hazard assessment but can be generally extended to all types of
natural hazards like flood. In this sense, flood susceptibility is the degree
to which an area can be affected by floods. In addition, the susceptibility of
elements to flood or conditions that constraint the capability to cope with its
impact defines the communities’ vulnerability to flooding hazard (Atkins 2007,
Neussner 2009). This susceptibility to flooding can be measured using several
factors. While flood brings various impacts to the social system, the magnitude
of impact depends on the levels of their exposure and vulnerability. It is
therefore important to assess the susceptibility of communities to flooding,
especially of the flood-prone areas like Santo Domingo, for better decision
making and best management of the flood hazard. Hence, this study is conducted
to identify the areas susceptible to flooding using Analytical Hierarchy
Process (AHP) for the establishment of early warning and decision support
system in Barangay Santo Domingo, Bay, Laguna.

Analytic Hierarchy
Process (AHP) according to Saaty (2008)

“A
theory of measurement through pairwise comparisons and relies on the judgments
of experts to derive priority scales. It is these scales that measure
intangibles in relative terms. The comparisons are made using a scale of
absolute judgments that represents, how much more, one element dominates
another with respect to a given attribute. The judgments may be inconsistent,
and how to measure inconsistency and improve the judgments, when possible to
obtain better consistency is a concern of the AHP.”
Furthermore, Saaty stated that it seems inescapable that we need an organized
way to make decisions. And to do this, we need to collect information relevant
to the decision we are going to make. Decision must be done by laying out all
the important factors so group of expert can negotiate their understanding,
beliefs, and values. It is for this reason that AHP is now a widely used
concept in almost every field worldwide.

One of the most
devastating natural disasters with socio-economic and environmental
consequences is flood (Rahmati et al. 2016). The World Health Organization
(WHO, 2003) report shows that among all other natural disaster, floods are the
most common affecting about 140 million people per year globally.

In the Philippines,
disastrous floods are common due to the magnitude of the hazard (Eleazar,
2011). In the province of Laguna, among the most recent disastrous flood events
were those caused by typhoon Ondoy (International Code Name Ketsana) and
succeeding typhoons in 2009 and the floods caused by excessive rains from the
Southwest monsoon as enhanced by typhoons Gener (International Code Name Saola)
and Haikui in 2012. Among the flood-prone municipalities surrounding the Laguna
Lake is the municipality of Bay (Lasco and Zamora, 2015). The study of the
World Bank in 2013 showed that lake water levels have exceeded the flood level
of 12.5 meters in 23 years, 13.0 meters in eight years and 13.5 m in four years
which led to the development of the Master Plan for Flood Management in Metro
Manila and Surrounding Areas. The Laguna Lake Development Authority in 2009, as
well as, Lasco and Espaldon in 2005 reported increased lake water level
occurrences up to 14.62 and 14.35 meters in 1919 and 1943, respectively. Likewise,
another increase in lake water levels up to 13.8 m causing flood event was
recorded in 2012 which is due to rains brought by the South West Monsoon (Lasco
and Zamora, 2015). One of the coastal barangays of the municipality of Bay that
is frequently affected by flood is Barangay Santo Domingo.

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For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Flooding is one of the
hazards that is frequently experienced in the Philippines causing damages not
only to properties and livelihood but even lives of people. It is for this
purpose that the government are doing their best to manage flooding. Indicators
used for estimation of a flood as hazard include flood depth, duration,
velocity and probability of flood occurrence (Zonensein et al. 2008). Risk, on
the other hand, is evolved into various modifications which consider other
elements like exposure, vulnerability, and adaptive or coping capacity
(Bantayan, 2014).

Santangelo et al.
(2011), defined susceptibility as the likelihood of a dangerous event occurring
in an area on the basis of local terrain conditions. This term is often used in
landslide hazard assessment but can be generally extended to all types of
natural hazards like flood. In this sense, flood susceptibility is the degree
to which an area can be affected by floods. In addition, the susceptibility of
elements to flood or conditions that constraint the capability to cope with its
impact defines the communities’ vulnerability to flooding hazard (Atkins 2007,
Neussner 2009). This susceptibility to flooding can be measured using several
factors. While flood brings various impacts to the social system, the magnitude
of impact depends on the levels of their exposure and vulnerability. It is
therefore important to assess the susceptibility of communities to flooding,
especially of the flood-prone areas like Santo Domingo, for better decision
making and best management of the flood hazard. Hence, this study is conducted
to identify the areas susceptible to flooding using Analytical Hierarchy
Process (AHP) for the establishment of early warning and decision support
system in Barangay Santo Domingo, Bay, Laguna.

Analytic Hierarchy
Process (AHP) according to Saaty (2008)

“A
theory of measurement through pairwise comparisons and relies on the judgments
of experts to derive priority scales. It is these scales that measure
intangibles in relative terms. The comparisons are made using a scale of
absolute judgments that represents, how much more, one element dominates
another with respect to a given attribute. The judgments may be inconsistent,
and how to measure inconsistency and improve the judgments, when possible to
obtain better consistency is a concern of the AHP.”
Furthermore, Saaty stated that it seems inescapable that we need an organized
way to make decisions. And to do this, we need to collect information relevant
to the decision we are going to make. Decision must be done by laying out all
the important factors so group of expert can negotiate their understanding,
beliefs, and values. It is for this reason that AHP is now a widely used
concept in almost every field worldwide.

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