“On British company the right to sell tea

            “On Colonial American soil, in 1620, the Pilgrims of theMassachusetts Bay Colony established a community government based on anagreement called the Mayflower Compact.

They set up their own government, eventhough King James I of England had not given them the authority to governthemselves. The Mayflower Compact provided for framing “such just and equallawes, ordinances, acts, constitutions, and offices,” as the Pilgrims thought”most meete and convenient for the general good of the Colony.”i “Throughout the 1600s, asother groups of settlers arrived in America they, too, devised charters orcompacts that set up local governments. Such charters included the FundamentalOrders of Connecticut (1639), and the Articles of Confederation of the UnitedColonies of New England (1643-1684).”ii “Early American colonistswere subjects of the British Crown, and they were often dissatisfied withEnglish law. For example, the colonist strongly objected to the Stamp Act of1765, which taxed all newspapers and legal papers in the colonies. After thelaw was passed, angry colonists took action by asking for delegates to attend aStamp Act Congress in New York. Nine colonies sent delegates.

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At the Stamp ActCongress, delegates denounced what they called “taxation without representation.”iii “In 1773, the Britishgovernment again angered Americans by giving a British company the right tosell tea directly to the Colonies. This undercut the American merchants who hadbeen selling British tea on the Colonies.

in an act of defiance, colonistsdressed as Native Americans boarded a British ship in Boston harbor and dumpedcrates of tea overboard. The British government punished the colonists bybriefly closing Boston ports. This only made the colonists more determined tofight the King’s rule.”iv            “Shortly after the Boston Tea Party, Great Britain’sParliament passed a law levying a taw on tea. In response, colonists convenedthe First Continental Congress (also called the national Congress) inPhiladelphia. To protest the British Tea Act of 1774, delegates from thethirteen colonies passed resolutions calling for a boycott, a ban againstBritish trade.”v”When the national Congress met again in June 1776, a resolution was introducedthat the “United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independentStates.

” A committee was appointed to “prepare a declaration to the effect ofthe said first resolution.” The result was the Declaration of Independence,which was adopted on July 4, 1776.”vi “The American Revolutionended in 1781 with the defeat of the British by the American volunteer arm.

Independence brought new problems. The Articles of Confederation, passed by thenational Congress that same year, showed the states’ reluctance to give uppower to a national government. The Articles created one legislative body,called Congress. Each state had one vote in Congress.

Only the states couldregulate commerce, levy taxes, maintain an army, or print money. Consequently,Congress had no authority to levy taxes to pay off the $42 million debt fromthe American revolution. Under the Articles, the United States was simply aloose-knit group of bickering and competing states. Important legislationseldom passed, since it took agreement by nine states to pass laws.”vii “TheFirst Amendment to the Constitution prohibits the government from limitingcertain important freedoms of individual expression. It allows people toworship freely, to speak and write freely, to meat together peaceably, and tocomplain to an about the government.”viii “The First Amendmentprevents the government from arresting anyone who criticizes the government inspeech or in print.

Before the American Revolution, a catch-all charge calledseditious libel was used by the British government to punish colonists who daresto speak out against the government. Like many other rules imposed by theCrown, colonists considered seditious libel laws unjust. Finally, withouttaking up arms, the colonists rebelled. In a 1734 landmark court case, a jurymade up of American colonists ignored British law they found the accused, JohnPeter Zenger, not guilty of four courts of seditious libel. Zenger, a printerin New York, was arrested for printing material critical of the territorialgovernor, who had been appointed by the king. British laws against seditiouslibel said that the government had only to prove the Zenger printed thematerial.

Zenger admitted that he had. According to British law, Zenger wasclearly guilty as charged. In court, the colonial jury ignored the law, and foundZenger not guilty.

Zenger was the last colonist to be charged with seditiouslibel. This case established a basis for freedom of the press in America,before the American revolution, and before the Declaration of Independence, theConstitution, and the Bill of Rights were written. The First Amendment alsokeeps “church and state” separate. Many settlers who came to America hadsuffered under foreign governments that forced them either to follow aparticular religion or to pay a fine.

The First Amendment was written toprevent the government from establishing a state religion that all citizensmust support. It also prohibits the government from using public tax dollars tofavor one religion over another.”ix”Alllegislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the UnitedStates, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.” x “The House ofRepresentatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second year by thepeople of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have theQualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Brach of the Statelegislature.

No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained tothe age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the UnitedStates, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that state inwhich he shall be chosen.”xi “The Executive powershall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall holdhis office during the Term of four years, and, together with the VicePresident, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows.

“xii “The Judicial Power ofthe Untied States, shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferiorCourts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges,both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during goodBehaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Service, aCompensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in office.”xiii  “The Judicial Power shall extend to all cases,in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the UnitedStates, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority; -toall Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls; -to allCases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction; – to Controversies to which theUnited States shall be a Party;-to Controversies between two or more States; -between a State and Citizens of another State; -between Citizens of differentStates, -between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants ofdifferent States, and between a State or the Citizens thereof, and foreignStates, Citizens or Subjects.”xiv”Fullfaith and credit shall be given in each state to the public Acts, Records, andjudicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may be general Lawsprescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall beproved, and the Effect thereof.”xv “The citizens of eachState shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in theSeveral States.

A person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or otherCrime, who shall flee from Justice, and be on found in another State, shall onDemand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be deliveredup, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.”xvi “The Congress shall havepower to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting theTerritory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in thisConstitution shall be so constructed as to Prejudice and Claims of the UnitedStates, or of any particular State.”xvii      WorksCitediJudson, K, 2013, The United States Constitution:Its History Bill of Rights, and Amendments, pg. 40, Ibid., pp. 21-22iiJudson, K, 2013, The United StatesConstitution: Its History Bill of Rights, and Amendments, pg. 41 iiiJudson, K, 2013, The United StatesConstitution: Its History Bill of Rights, and Amendments, pg. 42 ivJudson, K, 2013, The United StatesConstitution: Its History Bill of Rights, and Amendments, pg.

42 vJudson, K, 2013, The United StatesConstitution: Its History Bill of Rights, and Amendments, pg. 43viJudson, K, 2013, The United StatesConstitution: Its History Bill of Rights, and Amendments, pg. 46 viiJudson, K, 2013, The United StatesConstitution: Its History Bill of Rights, and Amendments, pg. 47 viiiJudson, K, 2013, The United StatesConstitution: Its History Bill of Rights, and Amendments, pg. 138 ixJudson, K, 2013, The United StatesConstitution: Its History Bill of Rights, and Amendments, pgs.

139-14 xArticle 1 of Constitution of the UnitedStates, section 1xiArticle 1 of Constitution of the UnitedStates, section 2xiiArticle 2 of Constitution of the UnitedStates, section 1xiiiArticle 3 of Constitution of the UnitedStates, section 1xivArticle 3 of Constitution of the UnitedStates, section 2xvArticle 4 of Constitution of the UnitedStates, section 1xviArticle 4 of Constitution of the UnitedStates, section 2xviiArticle 4 of Constitution of the UnitedStates, section 3

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