Numerous attempts have been made in order to enhance the performance of ferrites by incorporating suitable magnetic or non magnetic impurities with different valence states at the A and B sites. The choice of suitable cation based on its site preference helps in developing magnetic ferrite nanoparticles with properties desirable for a particular application 8. Several researchers have reported that the substitution of zinc and nickel into the spinel lattice has a remarkable effect on magnetic properties of ferrites 9. Ni-Zn ferrites possess properties of a soft magnetic material such as high saturation magnetization, low coercivity and hysteresis loss and dielectric loss useful for both low and high frequency devices 8,10,11. The effect of manganese substitution in nickel-zinc ferrite systems has been investigated in order to obtain desirable magnetic properties with low losses 12,13. However, to the best of our knowledge a detailed correlated study on magnetic properties at low temperature of rare earth doped Mn-Ni-Zn ferrites has not been reported so far.
RE materials are known to possess good electrical resistivity and have a huge influence on the magnetic anisotropy of ferrites 14. The present work is intended to investigate the structural, electrical and magnetic properties of Gd3+ doped Mn0.2Ni0.6 Zn0.2 Gdx Fe2-xO4.
Gadolinium is chosen because it has high magnetic moment (7µB) and therefore is expected to improve magnetic properties 15. The study also proposes the cation distribution based on the site preference of the substituted cations and its analysis using saturation magnetization measurements.