Normal Homeostasis

Normal Homeostasis:
Glucose is a type of sugar, which is mainly comes from food and drinks we consume that are rich in carbohydrates. As food travels down your oesophagus to your stomach, acids and enzymes break it down into small pieces during this process glucose is released. Your body uses glucose for energy and it travels through your blood stream to cells, its called blood glucose or blood sugar. Once in the blood, insulin which is a hormone and it is created in your pancreas is then secreted into the blood that regulates the glucose levels and helps get into your cells. Your body is designed to keep levels of glucose in your blood regular, your pancreas monitors your blood sugar levels every few seconds. When your blood sugar levels rise after eating or drinking, the pancreas releases insulin into your bloodstream. Which acts like a key unlocking muscles, fat and liver cells so that glucose can get inside. Most of the cells in your body use glucose along with amino acids and fats for energy. After your body has used the energy it needed, the leftover glucose is stored in bundles called glycogen in your liver and muscles your body can store enough for about a day. Glucose homeostasis is the balance of insulin and glycogen to maintain blood glucose levels, and if the main source of fuel for your body and is essential for health and survival. Campbell biology (2011).
Post-absorptive phase:
Means the glucose levels in fasted blood, the digestive tract is empty therefore energy comes from the breakdown of your body reserves. Through a series of processes, glucose is released into your blood stream by the liver to maintain normal blood glucose levels. The glucose is produced by the liver through two separate ways glycogenolysis is the breakdown of glycogen, while gluconeogenesis is the synthesis of new glucose from other molecules. Mayer B. Davidson, (2004)
Absorptive phase:
Means the glucose levels in fed state after eating or drinking, lasts for about four hours during and after each meal, throughout this state the digested food is converted into sugar or glucose. Insulin is a hormone that allows glucose to enter the cells and to be used for energy. The liver will store glucose or turn any excess glucose into body fat for energy then the remaining glucose is stored in skeletal muscle as glycogen. Glycogen is a peptide hormone produced by alpha cells of the pancreas it works by raising the concentration of glucose and fat in the bloodstream and is the main catabolic hormone of the body. Mayer B. Davidson, (2004)

Sources of glucose:
Glycogenolysis: breakdown of glycogen to glucose in the skeletal muscle and liver the liver can convert glucose 6 phosphate to glucose via enzymes, lactate enters the blood and liver and eventually convert to glucose.
Lipolysis: breakdown of lipids and is used to mobilizes stored energy during fasting or exercise.
Protein catabolism: is a breakdown of proteins into amino acids that transport into cell through the plasma membrane and polymerization into new proteins via the use of ribonucleic acids and RNA ribosomes. Mayer B. Davidson, (2004)
Dysregulation of homeostasis:
Problems that can occur with dysregulation of blood glucose homeostasis are:
Hypoglycaemia: is defined by blood sugar levels below 50 to 60 mg/dl and can occur suddenly and is caused by an imbalance amount the amount of insulin taken through food intake and activity. The main cause of hypoglycaemia in a diabetic patient is to much insulin, little food an or excessive physical activity, alcohol can contribute to hypoglycaemia and if a patient eats irregularly signs and symptoms, the body has two main responses to hypoglycaemia several hormones are released into the blood stream these hormones help to increase the amount of glucose. Two of them can cause many symptoms of hypoglycaemia, weakness, sweating, nervousness, anxiety, fast heartbeat, shakiness, dizziness, tingling of the mouth and fingers and extreme hunger. These symptoms can occur when blood sugar is extremely low, second type of response results from low levels of sugar in the brain, symptoms headache, visual disturbances, mental dullness, confusion, amnesia, seizures or coma, these symptoms may occur when the glucose levels is extremely low (Mayer B. Davidson, 2004).
Hyperglycaemia: causes of hyperglycaemia is an imbalance among the amount of insulin taken or secreted, food absorbed and activity, excessive carbohydrates intake, high blood sugar which can cause two main problems, prolonged elevation of the blood sugar level for years much more than normal, contributes to the development of long term complications of diabetes, eye disease, kidney disease and nerve disease. Secondly very low levels of effective insulin working in the body causes glucose levels to become high, two serious conditions related to hyperglycaemia may occur diabetic ketoacidosis (in type 1 diabetes) or hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (type 2 diabetes). (Mayer B. Davidson, 2004).

There two types of people who suffer from regulating blood glucose levels, which can be tested through a range of tests: blood glucose levels, urine testing, HbA1c (glycated haemoglobin and fructosamine), blood pressure hypertension and blood fats (lipids). symptoms can be: Feeling very thirsty, urinating more frequently, mostly at night, feeling very tired, weight loss and loss of muscle bulk, itching around the genital area and periods of thrush, cuts and wounds heal slower, blurred vision. Diabetes UK (2017)
Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent) which can occur quickly over weeks or even day. Type 2 diabetes (insulin-independent) which can occur in early years without realising because the symptoms tend to be general. Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person’s blood sugar level to become too high. Type 1 diabetes, the disease mellitus is caused by a deficiency of insulin or a decreased response to insulin in relevant tissue, blood glucose levels rise but cells are unable to take enough glucose to meet metabolic needs. The level of glucose in the blood stream may exceed the capacity of the kidneys to re-absorb the nutrient, glucose that remains in the kidneys is excreted and can be indicated in a urine test. There are two main types of diabetes mellitus, each marked by high blood glucose but with different causes, type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder in which the immune system destroys the beta cells in the pancreas, type 1 normally appears during childhood, destroys a person’s ability to produce insulin, treatment consists of insulin injections several times a day. Insulin can be obtained from genetically engineered bacteria. Campbell biology (2011).
This obese phenotype is associated with insulin resistance and differs metabolically from type 1 diabetes which is an insulin deficient state. The mechanism by which obesity causes increased cardiovascular morbidity risks such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia, type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance are a common feature of obesity and its incidence rises with increasing BMI and its powerful risk for the development of type 2 diabetes more than 2/3 of patients with type 2 are obese. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by a failure of target cells to respond to normally insulin. Insulin is produced but the target cells fail to take up glucose is from the blood, so blood glucose levels remain evaluated, heredity can play a role with type 2, excess body weight and lack of exercise play a huge role too. Controlling blood sugar (glucose) levels is a major role of diabetes treatment to prevent complications or the disease. Type 1 managed with insulin as well as dietary changes and exercise. Type 2 may be managed with non-insulin medications, insulin, weight loss, lifestyle, dietary changes and exercise. Barnett and Kumar (2009)
Diabetes UK (2017) stated that There are 3.9 million people living with diabetes in the UK, diagnosed or undiagnosed. “More people than ever have diabetes. More people than ever are at risk of Type 2 diabetes. If nothing changes, more than five million people will have diabetes in the UK by 2025. Around 90% of people have Type 2 diabetes. Around 10% of people have Type 1 diabetes.”
Numerous medical studies have linked obstructive sleep apnoea with greater risks of developing type 2 diabetes. “according to expert’s side effects directly related to sleep apnoea could influence the metabolism of people as they sleep”.