Neurotransmitters cell die and brain shrink Symptoms –

Neurotransmitters are chemicals in the brain to allow an impulse from one nerve cell to pass to another.

There 50 neurotransmitters. Some of them are acetylcholine,norepinephrine,dopamine, serotonin and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA).Excitatory neurotransmitters-acetylcholine and norepinephrine. inhibitory neurotransmitters – dopamine, serotne and GABA. neurotransmitter can directly / indirectly influence neurons at a specific site of the brain, this affects behavior.

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Dopmine-behaviourDopamine main function is decision making and to control thoughts. In the article journal of computational neurology explains dopamine is the driving force. Dr. Chudler explaihow dopamine related to certain disorder like schizophrenia. Dopamine plays important role is motivation. Substantia nigrans controls the sensation of pleasure. Pleasurable sensation cause dpamine relesase causing neurons to become active. Types of behavior1.

Ingestive a. Feeding b. Drinking2. Reproductive3.

Sleep 4.homeostatic a. Temperature 5.learning and memory 6. Addictive behavior Receptor diversity1.

Adrenergic: alpha1A, 1b,1c2. Dopaminergic:D1, D2, D3Neurotransmission Neurotransmission behaviour1.acetylcholinea. Muscle contractionb. Affects memory in hippocampus2.

Dopaminea. Voluntary movement b. Learningc. Pleasure3. Noradrenalinea. Arousalb.

Alertnessc. Stimulation of sympathetic nervous system Behaviors or diseases related to neurotransmitters 1. Acetylcholine – learning and memory: Alzheimer’s disease2. Dopamine – parkinson’s disease 3.

norepinephrine- arousal, depressionAcetylcholine – AchIt activates muscles for initiation of motor behaviour These are found in CNS and PNSBy lowering Ach muscle movement is prevented by botoxAch synthesised from cholineAcetyl coA by the choline acetyltransferase enzymeThese are synthesized in presynaptic nerve terminal. Alzheimer’s disease is due to deficiency of acetylcholine. Alzheimer’s disease This diseasedestroys memory and ability to learnIn this disease protein clumps are formedClumps-amyloid plaques and tau tangles.

Protein strand twist and damage brain cell. Brain cell die and brain shrinkSymptoms – agression, lack of restrain, difficulty im self careMedication – cognition enhancing medication Stages of AlzheimerThere are 7 stages1. Normal2.normal age firgetfulness3. Mild cognitive impairment 4.

Mild Alzheimer’s disease 5. Moderate Alzheimer’s disease 6. Moderately severe Alzheimer’s disease 7. Severe Alzheimer’s diseaseDopamineParkinson’s disease Is degenarative, progressive disorder This affects basal ganglia and substantia nigra These substantia nigra is responsible for production of dopamineLow dopamine level- parkinson’s disease Dopamine generating cells-dopaminergic neurons Norepinephrine – mood depressionThis norepinephrine occurs normally in body. This acts as neurotransmitter and stress hormone. Stressful event – released into blood as stress hormone.

Functions1.increase heart rate2.trigger the release of glucose into blood3. Increase blood flow to musclesNorepinephrine increase alertnessLow conc – ADHD, depression, hypotensionMedication for increasing norepinephrine and dopamine1. Ritalin 2. Dexedrine 3.

adderall4. Strattera only for norepinephrine Depression people take SNRI These drug raise level of serotonin and norepinephrine Comman SNRI 1. Effexor2.cymbaltaOther drug-tricyclic antidepressant increase norepinephrine levelThese also causes sideeffects such as sedation weigt gain, dry mouthLevophed – that is given for hypotension8


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