negatively affected by the position of the emperor on their religion revolted and sought help from Protestant nations including Denmark, Great Britain, and the Netherlands. In response, Ferdinand sought support from the papacy as well as all other Catholics from Germany and Spain. He won the war against the Protestants and nearly diminished Protestantism in the empire. He then went on to confiscate lands and property owned by the Catholic Church that had been acquired by the Protestants1. The Palatinate war and the war with Denmark marked as a major event during the Thirty Years War. The event was marked by the claim of Maximilian of Bavaria who was fighting for Germany against the Protestants, over the Palatine lands as compensation for war expenses on his side. The Elector of Palatine refused to surrender and was defeated by the Bavarian forces who consequently occupied the lands in 1624. The war was marked by the defeat of Denmark in 1629 by the emperor together with the Bavarians2.
The edict of restitution was another major event that marked the war in the 1ate 1620s and was characterised by the wide success of the Bavarian soldiers in the Northern part of Germany. The emperor had become successful in his quest to silence the Protestants by defeating their sympathisers and confiscating their properties and giving what they had back in the hands of the Catholic Church. The edict was an attempt to establish a religious peace by legally solving all claims that weakened the peace among the different religions that existed in the region. The edict required Protestants to surrender any property they had taken from various Catholic Churches. With help from the courts through the legal process, the edict instituted a processes for the prosecution of any person who disturbed religious peace and also made it easy for the courts to solve any disputes related to religious conflicts3. The last phase of the thirty years war was
2 “The Thirty Years War: Europe’s Tragedy, by Peter H. Wilson.”
3 Wedgwood, C. V. “The Thirty Years War”