Nanotechnological the next generation in the fight against

Nanotechnologicalapplications in medicine have yielded a completely new field of technology thatis set to bring momentous advances in the fight against a range of diseases1.Nanoscale particles have emerged as novel microbial agents owing to the highsurface area to volume ratio, which is coming up as the current interest in theresearchers due to the growing microbial resistances against metal ions,antibiotics and the development of resistant strains 2 .

Many nanoparticleshave antimicrobial efficiency and used to control drug-resistant microbialpopulations.3 Different inorganic metal oxide nanoparticles such as, ZnO,MgO, TiO2 and SiO2 exhibit considerable antimicrobialactivities and used in therapeutics, diagnostics, and nanomedicine-basedantimicrobial agents.4,5 Inorganic nanoparticles show greater effectively onresistant strains of microbial pathogens, less toxicity, heat resistance andprovide mineral elements essential to human cells 6. Among these metal oxidesnanomaterials, ZnO is of special attention, due to its established use inhealthcare products, UV blocking capability, biocompatibility and modest cost7. Microbial contamination is a serious issue in healthcare and food industryso that the development of antimicrobial agents and surface coatings has beenattracting increasing attention in recent years 8.Zinc oxide nanoparticlesare known to be one of the multifunctional inorganic nanoparticles witheffective antibacterial activity.

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Antibacterial and antifungal activities ofzinc oxide nanoparticles are observed even at very lower concentrations andalso the antifungal activity does not influence soil fertility compared to theconventional antifungal agents9.Many researchers reported the properties ofZnO can be tuned by doping with various metal ions 10,11. The transitionmetals (Ni, Co, Al, Cu, Ag) doped ZnO display best properties, as transitionmetal elements have close ionic radius parameter to that of Zn2+,which means that these elements can easily penetrate into ZnO crystal latticeor substitute Zn2+ position in crystal 12. Doped transition metalsin zinc oxide optimize the electronic, magnetic, optical, and electricalcharacterization that are useful for different practical applications12.

Doped ZnO shows a maximum effect against pathogenic organisms as comparedto ZnO, thereby using nanoparticles as an antimicrobial agent and was one ofthe most useful techniques to control pharmacy chemical waste and costeffect13. Ni is an important dopant in these magnetic materials. Furthermore,Ni+2 (0.69 A ° ) has the same valence as Zn+2 and itsradius is close to that of Zn+2 (0.74 A ° ), so it is possible forNi+2 to replace Zn+2 in ZnO lattice.

Some researchersreported that the luminescence properties of zinc oxide were changed afterdoping of Ni 14.Theaim of the present work was to synthesize and structural characterize of  zincoxide nanoparticles doped with cobalt and nickal  by a chemical co-precipitin method. It s alsowould become the next generation in the fight against microbial infections

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