Name: Amelie Relative I will Interview: My Grand FatherCore: A Historical Event I will research: Cultural RevolutionD1 – Developing Questions and Planning InquiryD3 – EVALUATING SOURCES AND USING EVIDENCE Question Type QuestionSource TypeWho’s Perspective?CitationNotesBullet points in my own wordsCompelling Did the Cultural Revolution have a positive impact on China?Answered at end of project in final product and ELA essay. Not beneficial:Supporting QuestionWhat was the original purpose of the Chinese Cultural Revolution?Encyclopedia(Britannica, World Book, Wikipedia)Outside Perspective”Cultural Revolution.” Britannica School, Encyclopædia Britannica, 1 Nov. 2017. school.ebonline.com/levels/middle/article/Cultural-Revolution/273876. Accessed 29 Nov. 2017.Mao Zedong wanted to renew spirit in Chinareplaced current leaders to more loyal leadersto reform Chinese Communist Partyprovide youth with a revolutionary experiencemake health care and education oriented towards common citizenseliminate the unfairnesssocial, educational, cultural or financial inequalitiesAttack on the “Four Olds”Old culture, ideas, customs and habitsIf associated with these you were targetedSubject to public humiliation, forced to confess, beaten, killedTo change the course of the revolutionSupporting QuestionWhat are examples of real life perspectives?OnlineWesternTong, Mona. “Red Guard Terror.” The Cultural Revolution: Rights Violations and Irresponsibility, chinese-cultural-revolution.weebly.com/red-guard-terror.html. i People wore Mao badges…above their hearts in the first three or four years (1966-1969); the Quotations from Chairman Mao (the so-called Little Red Book) became something people waved to show loyalty to Mao (in the first 3-4 years). Mao’s image was everywhere: in statues on university campuses and in some workplaces. People sang songs and danced group dances in praise of the Chairman.” -Paul Clark, Student Email Interview”I saw…teachers standing on the platform on the sports ground, with their heads bent and their arms twisted into the ‘jet plane’ position. Then, some were…forced to kneel, while others, including my English-language teacher, an elderly man…were forced to stand on long, narrow benches. He found it hard to keep his balance…and fell, cutting his forehead…A Red Guard standing next to him instinctively stooped and extended his hands to help, but immediately straightened up…with his fists clenched, yelling ‘Get back onto the bench!’ He did not want to be seen as soft on a ‘class enemy.'” -Jung Chang …the bourgeoisie…are still trying to use old ideas, culture, customs, and habits of the exploiting classes to corrupt the masses, capture their minds and endeavor to stage a come-back.” -Mao Zedong, the Sixteen Points Speech (1966)” Day after day, my ears were filled with the sound of angry, accusing voices, my eyes were blurred by images of hostile faces, and my body ached from rough handling and physical abuse. I no longer felt like a human being, just an inanimate object.” -Nien Cheng Father and mother are dear, but dearer still is Chairman Mao.”-SayingSupporting QuestionWhat do people in China think about the cultural revolution?OnlineOutside PerspectiveGrant, Stan. “Shadow of Mao Still Lingers over China.” CNN, Cable News Network, 6 Nov. 2012, edition.cnn.com/2012/11/06/world/asia/china-mao-legacy-grant/.Most remember fear, revolution, paranoia, famine, brutality, tens of million deaths30 million deaths between 1952-1962Supporting QuestionHow did the Cultural Revolution affect people?OnlineOutside PerspectiveOsnos, Evan. “The Cost of the Cultural Revolution, Fifty Years Later.” The New Yorker, The New Yorker, 19 June 2017, www.newyorker.com/news/daily-comment/the-cost-of-the-cultural-revolution-fifty-years-later.2 hundred million people suffered from chronic malnutrition20 million sent to the countrysideSupporting QuestionHow did chinese culture change after the Cultural Revolution?OnlineOutside PerspectiveStanzel, Angela. “Chinese Culture after the Cultural Revolution.” China Policy Institute: Analysis, 9 July 2016, cpianalysis.org/2016/07/14/chinese-culture-after-the-cultural-revolution/.Destroy 4 Old (Ideas, customs, habits, culture)Industrial production weekend, along with economyIn 1971, Zhou Enlai helped to improve china’s economic and domestic developmentIn 1980, the government started slowly restored monuments, artifacts, Supporting QuestionWhat damage had the Cultural Revolution done?EncyclopediaWestern”Cultural Revolution.” Britannica School, Encyclopædia Britannica, 1 Nov. 2017. school.ebonline.com/levels/middle/article/Cultural-Revolution/273876. Accessed 29 Nov. 2017.Expensive and costlyTeens and young adults didn’t receive full educationTherefore didn’t find ideal jobsTons of damage to education system China fell further behind other countriesClose to civil war, thousands deadCorruption within the governmentRed Guards created a trail of mass destructionSupporting QuestionWhat were the killings of landlords? EncyclopediaOutside Perspective”Mass Killings of Landlords under Mao Zedong.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 1 Dec. 2017, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_killings_of_landlords_under_Mao_Zedong#Fate_of_the_landlords_after_Mao.To redistribute land to the lower peasant class and landless workersTargeted on the basis of classClassisideThroughout 30 years when maoist china had a social and economical transformationDeaths of 90-95% of 15 million members of landlord classSupporting Question What do chinese people think about the cultural revolution?Online ChinesePerspectiveKan, Karoline. “My Uncle Was a Red Guard in China’s Cultural Revolution. He Isn’t Sorry.”Foreign Policy, Foreign Policy, 16 May 2016, foreignpolicy.com/2016/05/16/my-uncle-was-a-red-guard-in-chinas-cultural-revolution-he-isnt-sorry/.Banished peking opera from the village, a long lasting traditionBurnt all props and costumesThey thought they were loyal, just following Mao’s ordersDid nothing wrong, actually believed they were rightMany bitter that China cast off values that were once important, sacrificed youthDuring cultural revolution, nobody took advantage of power, trying to revitalize revolutionary valuesSupporting Question How did the cultural revolution affect china’s economy?EncyclopediaEconomic Perspective”China.” Britannica School, Encyclopædia Britannica, 1 Nov. 2017. school.ebonline.com/levels/middle/article/China/272682#195662.toc. Accessed 13 Dec. 2017.Trying to make a new system of education, tried to eliminate differences between town and city, workers and peasants, mental and manual labourSupport from youth and army, Attack against authors, scholars, propagandistsAccused of past ideological sins and alleged errors in judgment.Dazibao were spread everywhereMake education, health care less elitistMany elderly and intellectuals were abused, many diedClosed schools and slowed productionSevered china’s relations with outside worldCultural, because they wanted to change the people’s valuesMao feared chinese society was becoming rigid? of the Central Committee were missing after cultural revolutionReform of land, society, family, and thoughtsredistributing landlord’s lands to peasantsin families, women have same rights, children can denounce parents to CCPpeople and economy was devastatedthree straight years of poor harvests, resulted with severe food shortages, starvationas many as 30 million by some estimated deadindustrial declineSupporting QuestionWhat reasons were there for the Cultural Revolution?Online SourceWesternHardcastle, Nick. “IGCSE History.” Dhahran British Grammar School, 2005, www.dhahranbritish.com/history/A14_ReasonCR.htm.Didn’t like the increase in numbers of experts and specialistsEducation was better for urban families and privilegedCreating a privileged middle classMao wanted to regain his dominant position in the Party, undermine othersHe had less influence, accused others of betraying purposeMao was influenced by his wife Jiang QingTo attack four “olds”, culture, thoughts, customs, habitsEqualise value of physical and mental labourEqually rewarded for contributionRed guards, set up in 1966, youth who praised MaoAttack anyone who represented authorityForced to recite Mao’s book, confess guiltRed guards took over public transport, radioImpossible to put forward any opposing viewsSupporting QuestionsWhat were the key events?Online SourceOutside PerspectiveRamzy, Austin. “China’s Cultural Revolution, Explained.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 14 May 2016, www.nytimes.com/2016/05/15/world/asia/china-cultural-revolution-explainer.html.1958-61 Great Leap Forward, tens of millions died because of Mao’s policies, died of torture, exhaustion, disease, hungerJanuary 1961 President Liu Shaoqi describes famine of Great Leap Forward as a “man-made disaster”, support for Mao is at all time lowMay 16 1966, Mao issues a declaration commending communist party for being influenced by the elite1.5 million executed or suicidedMay 25 1966, Peking University student, Nie Yuanzi puts up a poster accusing administrationMay 28 1996, Mao’s wife Jiang Qing, Chen Boda, Kang Sheng, Yao Wenyuan, Zhang Chunqiao form the Cultural Revolution Group, to launch and guide the revolutionAugust 1, 1966, Red Guards form units, after Mao writes letter voicing supportAugust 18, 1966, Red Guards gathered in Tiananmen Square, told to attack counter revolutionariesAugust 23-December 26 1966 Applauded Red Guard violence as it spreads, Mao;s 73rd birthday welcomes the unfolding of a civil war1967 Officials and Red Guards throw leaders out, paraded, beaten, fights deepen, Mao tries to rein in most supportive December 22 1968 Authorities send millions of urban youth to countryside, sent for re educated, between 1968-1980 18 million are sent. 1968 former president Liu Shaoqi is expelled dies the next year dies from bad treatment, campaign to “cleanse class ranks” claims tons of livesApril 1969 Lin Biao is declared heirLin Biao dies in plane crash in 1971 after fight with Mao1972 Richard Nixon visits china, Premier Zhou EnLai tries to restore economy, leaders are able to return to office, Mao still defends allies1976 Premier Zhou dies in January, Hua Guofeng and officials arrest Gang of Four.September 9, Mao dies, at 82 Supporting QuestionWho, When, Where?BookOutside PerspectiveAllan, Tony. The Rise of Modern China. Heinemann Library, 2002.1966 to mid 1976in People’s Republic of ChinaMao Zedong Communist Party ChairmanLiu ShaoqiPresident, became target of attacks, died in 1969 from 2 years of abuse and no medical treatmentZhou EnlaiShowed loyalty to mao, only act on important matters, death in 1976 from cancerJiang QingMao’s wife, former actress, Gang of Four, committed suicide in 1991Lin BiaoLeader of People’s Liberation Army and promoted Mao, ordered “Little Red Book”, died in plane crash 1971Deng XiaopingPeople’s Liberation Army Gang of Four(mao’s wife)Lasted a decadeEnded with the death of MaoSupporting QuestionHow was the Cultural Revolution spread?OnlineOutside Perspective”China’s Cultural Revolution, Explained.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 14 May 2016, www.nytimes.com/2016/05/15/world/asia/china-cultural-revolution-explainer.html.The Red Guards who were students that helped Mao spread his ideasThey formed groups to take down political opponents of Mao, and abused and publicly humiliated manyGroups often battled each other, like my grandfatherA campaign to wipe out four olds (ideas, customs, habits, culture)Destruction of historical monuments and cultural relicsPeople’s Liberation Army to control once they grew out of controlInfluencing the younger generations to believe that Mao was supreme, therefore belittling his other political opponents, giving himself more power and control.Supporting QuestionWhat were the consequences?Online SourceOutside Perspective(www.dw.com), Deutsche Welle. “Q&A: What Was the Cultural Revolution? | Asia | DW | 13.05.2016.” DW.COM, Rodion Ebbighausen, 13 May 2016, www.dw.com/en/qa-what-was-the-cultural-revolution/a-19249554.Estimated 1.4 million to 1.6 million killed during the revolutionMost during the “cleansing campaigns” using violence to restore orderIntroductions of health systems and education in rural areas were beneficialImprisonment, seizure of property, torture, humiliationMany chinese lost faith in the governmentTens of millions persecuted500,000 to eight million deadSupporting QuestionHow did the Cultural Revolution affect China?EncyclopediaOutside Perspective “Cultural Revolution – Wikipedia.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural_Revolution. Accessed 11 Dec. 2017.Education was pausedSchools, universities closedSome primary and middle schools reopenedBut colleges and universities only opened in 1970University entrance exams cancelled in 1966University exams restored in 1977 under Deng Xiaoping142 teachers persecutedSome places had illiteracy rates of 41% 20 years afterDestructionChanging namesCutting hairRansacking homes Vandalizing cultural treasuresDesecrating templesMany publicly denounced, punished, humiliatedStudents denounced teachers, children denounced parentsMany deaths from harmful treatment or suicide. Red Guards had more power than police, army and lawMillions of Chineses freed from povertyForced into “cowsheds”, detention centers where people are forced to perform manual labor, recite Mao’s quotes, beatingsSupporting QuestionWhat are some statistics of the Cultural Revolution?Online SourceWesternMorley, Ophelia. “Cultural Revolution Statistics.” Quizlet, 17 June 2017, quizlet.com/131561532/china-cultural-revolution-statistics-flash-cards/.Estimated 10 million Red guards at peakDestroyed ? of 7,000 historically/culturally important landmarks in Beijing 13 million students attended rallies in totalRed Guards broke into 100,000 homes in search of “old” artifacts750 million copies of “Little red Book”48 billion yuan worth of property stole by Red Guards1.5 million killedSupporting QuestionHow was Chinese culture affected by the Cultural Revolution?Online SourceCultural Perspective”Chinese Culture after the Cultural Revolution.” China Policy Institute: Analysis, CPIAnalysis, 9 July 2016, cpianalysis.org/2016/07/14/chinese-culture-after-the-cultural-revolution/.Changed the country’s cultural values, replaced by Mao’s thoughtsMake the system less elitistGet rid of “four olds”, attack on intellectual elite, most criticsMass movement of students and school childrenEncourage to attack traditional values, criticize officialsRed Guards destroyed as much as possibleTemples, ShrinesBooks, pictures goneSupporting QuestionHow has the Cultural Revolution affected China?Online SourceCultural PerspectivePhillips, Tom. “The Cultural Revolution: All You Need to Know about China’s Political Convulsion.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 10 May 2016, www.theguardian.com/world/2016/may/11/the-cultural-revolution-50-years-on-all-you-need-to-know-about-chinas-political-convulsion.Although Mao wished for the revolution to make communism bigger, but, it has had an opposite as China embraced capitalism in the 1980s”A common verdict is: no Cultural Revolution, no economic reform,”Had a terrible effect on the people, but life still improved. Supporting QuestionSupporting QuestionHow did life change for the citizens after the Cultural Revolution?InterviewRelativeZhang, Amelie. “Family History Project Interview.” 6 Jan. 2018.Zhang, Guoxiang. “Family History Project Interview.” 6 Jan. 2018.26 years old, 5 years at workEveryone supported Mao ZedongWas part of the Red GuardsLocked up in jail for 2 years, because his group and another had an argument and lostUsed to believe that the Cultural Revolution was right, but looking back he changed his mindAfter the Cultural Revolution, he received help from the government, including money for medical fees, also received a job.Although the period of time had been really tough, it still benefited the country as a whole after the Cultural Revolution, as the standard of life increased a lot, and people were able to receive more income. Had been sent to the countryside to workNever had been really starving, but certainly didn’t earn much.His house had been dug up, because he had been accused of hiding things from the governmentHe had 6 siblings, 2 older sisters and 2 younger brothers, a younger sisterBelieved that even though some other government officials earned much more money, they still didn’t live well compared to now.Over the years life has obviously gotten much better than before for everyone in general.Now everyone has believed that the whole Cultural Revolution did not benefit the country at all, but living has gotten better, as the country has economically gotten better.Many people had been punished by the government, not allowing people to sleep, beating, whipping and public humiliation for people who would not admit to crimes which they had been wrongly accused of. There had been many parades all through the streets, posters stuck everywhere on the walls.The whole country had been brainwashed, with almost nobody brave enough to stand up to government as they wouldn’t be able to winEveryone had been physically and mentally harmed, with many receiving harm, also not able to go back home from where they were workingMy grandmother had been forced to work for a few years in a farm in the suburbs, not able to have contact with her family back in ShanghaiMost of his siblings had not been affected as much as he did, because he had been a good writer and speaker, which was why he had been put to be a leader of a group of Red Guards.Even though everyone still believes Mao to be a great leader as he helped to unite the country, many of his actions were believed to be wrong, such as the Cultural Revolution.Most people believed Mao, decided to join Red GuardsThroughout the Cultural Revolution, people began to form 2 different groups, and had clashes in which made many people put in jail.He had finished his studies in college, but had been reassigned to a rural area to help develop the country in the “Down to the Countryside Movement”This happened to many who were believed to be well educated to help make the whole of China more developedMany families had been separated thanks to the Cultural Revolution, as he had been not able to see his family for a few years, and while some family members remained in jail, others were busy having to workAt that time he had a low income, with 35 dollars, and had to support his family, my mom and uncle, who both had to go to school, and a nurse to take care of the children while working, therefore leaving not much money to use freely.He was one of 6 children, so he had a hard childhood, as his parents had not had a high income, and had to pay for all the children’s schooling. From 1957-1959 everyone had an especially hard time, as the whole country had a very bad life. Believes that the Cultural Revolution should be an example to the younger generations as what that shouldn’t be done, as it killed many and harmed others, and the economy in China had been suffering for a long time. From university he was sent to Yanchen, from his university in Nanjing. He was originally from Zhenjiang, and his wife was from SuZhou. It had been hard for everyone at that time, because there had always people who would barge into houses looking for something to criticize and to punish, and between people there had been many fights and deaths.Government believed that we should all be equal, poor were encouraged to attack the rich, and many of the well educated and talented had been giving insulting jobs and sent to the countryside.At that time the whole country had been in a bad situation, so he believes this is why so many people were willing to listen to what Mao had saidSupporting QuestionWhat were examples of propaganda from the cultural revolution?Primary SourceHistorical PerspectiveCultural Revolution Campaigns (1966-1976), Stefan R. Landsberger Collections, 16 Dec. 2016, chineseposters.net/themes/cultural-revolution-campaigns.php.Did your compelling question help you to understand your family’s history? Why?My compelling question helped me to understand the hardships that my grandparents and parents had to go through in there time during the Cultural Revolution, and lets me know how much the country where my ancestors lived in has developed over time, and why past events in China’s history helped to shape the young people of China’s lives now. I think this compelling question has lead me to have better knowledge of how it was to live in a different time period and country, and helped me to be able to realize how thankful I should be for the much better life I live. The compelling question helped me to realize how lucky it was for my grandparents to be able to reunite after the war, and to be able to have my mom, so that I could be born.Did your supporting questions help you to understand your family’s history? Why?The supporting questions really helped me understand my family history because they lead me to so many resources that I used to gather information and knowledge that I didn’t have before. I hadn’t realized how the Cultural Revolution had huge but different impacts on everyone because of their status and how wealthy they were. Without the supporting questions, it would have been much harder for me to get the information I wanted, and to understand what I needed to know about the topic.