Name: genetics underlying. More so, these phenotypes don’t

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Reasons for there being no race

How we know that there are no races in modern humans

Analysis of human DNA on patterns of human evolution shows that in as much as there is genetic variation in humans, the variation is mostly as a result of individual variation. Race is a concept that was brood from culture, politics and economy concepts in the society. Thus, it not a biological concept as there exists no genetic differences in the human race (Biello, 23).

It is possible for one to tell racial background from DNA as it easier to give accurate phenotypic reconstruction of the features chosen as racial markers obtained from DNA. A human race only considers phenotypic markers and these phenotypes are not associated with the genetics underlying. More so, these phenotypes don’t model the people. Most of the people base race on skin color yet the skin color is controlled by very little alleles. In a nut shell, phenotypic markers of race cannot be used to determine the heredity of people since the skin color cannot be used as a genetic marker (Biello, 23).

Differences which exist among individuals are estimated to be approximately 94 percent of all genetic variation. Race, on the other hand, is estimated to be 4% of all difference conspicuous in human and this is quite a small figure. Results from a scientific study revealed that almost half of the alleles were detected in almost all population in the world which are major. Only 7.4% of alleles were restricted to one region and they tended to be very rare (Biello, 25).

Race realists, on the other hand, believe race is real in society. As a social construction, race has real effects and consequences. It shapes the way people see themselves in the society and how they see others. Race is a social construct which is based on collective acceptance imposition and agreement.  It is usually defined by the groups who are dominant in society as they tend to take up the authority over others. More so, it indicates differences in status amongst the people in the society. The status that usually results from the race in which one belongs to and it either includes or excludes social constructs concepts. It enables or disables certain powers which may have been previously granted to some people within the society (Biello, 26). 

There exists genetic similarity between African and Europeans yet, sub-Saharan Africans have a dark skin, hard hair texture and cranial-facial features, and these are mainly the traits that are used to classify people into races.

Scientists agree that people have varied skin color mainly because of the varied environments in which they live. They have physically changed as environmental conditions warranted. Usually, skin color is a factor of amount of sun received as people sunny regions such as the tropics tend to have darker skin than people from temperate zones. Then there is the issue of melanin which protects the skin from harmful ultraviolet radiation. Sunlight also stimulates production of vitamin D within the body which also contributes to the variation in skin color. People from northern Europe and Asia have little or no melanin hence they absorb more sunlight there was, hence produce more vitamin D as compared to the Africans (Biello, 26).

 

One example of why people still believe there exist various races is disease variation.  For instance, there is a certain relationship believed to exist between diabetes and race. It is believed that the disease is partly genetic and people tend to look at the genetic differences as the main cause of the disease rather than the environmental factors. For instance, there are Pima Indians who have an adult diabetic rate of 50 % and many a times, they do not look at it from the way of their life such as the fast food they take and they tend to relate it to genetics rather than these environmental factors (Vial, 33).

Studies shows there are differences on the basis of race between different diseases. For instance, blacks Americans have an infant mortality that is twice higher than their white counterparts in the US. Essentially, people tend to contribute it to genetics as they believe there is something about the African Americans in USA. However, this is related to prenatal nutrition than genetics and once again people have the wrong perception of an issue (Vial, 34).

 

Work cited

Biello, D. (2016). The unnatural world: The race to remake civilization in Earth’s newest age.

Vial, T. M. (2016). Modern religion, modern race.

 

 

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Professor:

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Reasons for there being no race

How we know that there are no races in modern humans

Analysis of human DNA on patterns of human evolution shows that in as much as there is genetic variation in humans, the variation is mostly as a result of individual variation. Race is a concept that was brood from culture, politics and economy concepts in the society. Thus, it not a biological concept as there exists no genetic differences in the human race (Biello, 23).

It is possible for one to tell racial background from DNA as it easier to give accurate phenotypic reconstruction of the features chosen as racial markers obtained from DNA. A human race only considers phenotypic markers and these phenotypes are not associated with the genetics underlying. More so, these phenotypes don’t model the people. Most of the people base race on skin color yet the skin color is controlled by very little alleles. In a nut shell, phenotypic markers of race cannot be used to determine the heredity of people since the skin color cannot be used as a genetic marker (Biello, 23).

Differences which exist among individuals are estimated to be approximately 94 percent of all genetic variation. Race, on the other hand, is estimated to be 4% of all difference conspicuous in human and this is quite a small figure. Results from a scientific study revealed that almost half of the alleles were detected in almost all population in the world which are major. Only 7.4% of alleles were restricted to one region and they tended to be very rare (Biello, 25).

Race realists, on the other hand, believe race is real in society. As a social construction, race has real effects and consequences. It shapes the way people see themselves in the society and how they see others. Race is a social construct which is based on collective acceptance imposition and agreement.  It is usually defined by the groups who are dominant in society as they tend to take up the authority over others. More so, it indicates differences in status amongst the people in the society. The status that usually results from the race in which one belongs to and it either includes or excludes social constructs concepts. It enables or disables certain powers which may have been previously granted to some people within the society (Biello, 26). 

There exists genetic similarity between African and Europeans yet, sub-Saharan Africans have a dark skin, hard hair texture and cranial-facial features, and these are mainly the traits that are used to classify people into races.

Scientists agree that people have varied skin color mainly because of the varied environments in which they live. They have physically changed as environmental conditions warranted. Usually, skin color is a factor of amount of sun received as people sunny regions such as the tropics tend to have darker skin than people from temperate zones. Then there is the issue of melanin which protects the skin from harmful ultraviolet radiation. Sunlight also stimulates production of vitamin D within the body which also contributes to the variation in skin color. People from northern Europe and Asia have little or no melanin hence they absorb more sunlight there was, hence produce more vitamin D as compared to the Africans (Biello, 26).

 

One example of why people still believe there exist various races is disease variation.  For instance, there is a certain relationship believed to exist between diabetes and race. It is believed that the disease is partly genetic and people tend to look at the genetic differences as the main cause of the disease rather than the environmental factors. For instance, there are Pima Indians who have an adult diabetic rate of 50 % and many a times, they do not look at it from the way of their life such as the fast food they take and they tend to relate it to genetics rather than these environmental factors (Vial, 33).

Studies shows there are differences on the basis of race between different diseases. For instance, blacks Americans have an infant mortality that is twice higher than their white counterparts in the US. Essentially, people tend to contribute it to genetics as they believe there is something about the African Americans in USA. However, this is related to prenatal nutrition than genetics and once again people have the wrong perception of an issue (Vial, 34).

 

Work cited

Biello, D. (2016). The unnatural world: The race to remake civilization in Earth’s newest age.

Vial, T. M. (2016). Modern religion, modern race.

 

 

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