NAME

NAME: MKWANAZI NTHABISENG
STAIL: [email protected] CODE: POLI 102
LECTURE: Mr. SYSMAN MOTLOUNG
DUE DATE: 16APRIL2018
Table of Content
INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………………………………………4
IMAGE OF MYSELF AND MY FRIEND……………………………………………………………………….3
IMBALANCES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………5
INJUSTICES………………………………………………………………………………………………………………7
HOW TO HEAL THEM……………………………………………………………………………………………….11
CONCLUSION……………………………………………………………………………………………………………12

For this assignment I became friends with a white person so that we could come with solutions to the division between black people and white people in South Africa. Her name is Samantha and I learned a lot from her and I was able to understand how apartheid affects white people.

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Name and email : Samantha-Leigh Niemen, [email protected]
Student number : 30686482
Introduction
The bad history of South Africa plays a big role on the mindset of white supremacy. The apartheid era caused segregation between black people and white people which is still an issue in South Africa. Apartheid caused segregation between black people and white people in schools and public places. With the portrayal of apartheid laws in 1948, racial discrimination was established. In this assignment I will be interviewing my white friend Samantha. We are racially different and have different backgrounds but we have one thing in common which is humanity. This assignment will be highlighting points that are major factors which are causing segregation in South Africa in the present years.

According to liberalism, there should equality amongst people and no person must be discriminated or seen inferior to someone because of their race. Liberalists believe there should be no phrase that says some of my friends are black and some are white as we are all the same and race should not define us. In this essay, issues of the imbalances causing division between black and white people will be discussed to show to what extent blacks and whites in South Africa relate. There will be information about the causes of imbalances in terms of education, social and economics and Gini coefficient. This essay will also have information about the injustices that cause division. There will be information about how this caused division and how it causes people of today to divide according to their races. Division from the past plays a big role in making black and white people differ in many ways. This makes it hard for these two races to relate most of the time.

This essay will have view points on how to solve the issue of division between black and white people. To find solutions to the issues that cause division amongst black people and white people I had to talk to Samantha who is a white person and also a student. Samantha and I discussed about issues that made us different and how much we related. We talked about how Apartheid affects us from a black and white person’s perspective this assay will show how different issues affect black and white people in the hopes of finding how much the people of these races relate.

IMBALANCES
Education
Education for black South Africans has been one difficult issue caused by the apartheid government. Samantha and I discussed about the education system of South Africa and how it is in black South African communities and white South African communities. As a black person I looked at the past educational system back in the apartheid years and the system of education now.Bantu Education Act, South African law, enacted in 1953 and in effect from January 1, 1954, that governed the education of black South African (called Bantu by the country’s government) children.
Even though South Africa is now a democratic country, the government is still ignorant towards black communities. The percentage of black students dropping out of school keeps on increasing every year and the unemployment rate is increased by black people. Many public schools in townships lack a lot of resources, at times textbooks are not provided by the government. It is hard for many black children to get their matric certificate to further their studies because they are influenced by a lot of things around them which are not positive.
Education for white children has always been prestige from the years of apartheid to now. Samantha looked back at her childhood years and how all the schools she attended and she also looked back at apartheid years. Education for white children was considered first to other races during apartheid and it is no different now in the current years. They had all the resources needed for all their subjects. They had extra lessons that prepared them for better positions for work in the future. This helped the apartheid government to maintain its power because white people groomed their children to take over the work after them. For these reasons more white children were able to matriculate and further their studies.

White children are still privileged because they still have wealth from their previous advantages. Private schools that most white children attend have the resources that are needed to make learning more efficient. Even though the schools are no longer segregated, most black people cannot afford private schools because they are expensive. Private schools are helpful towards a child’s future because they will be able to find suitable jobs. While public schools are for free, they are not resourceful and there is a lot of corruption in public schools.

Gini coefficient
Samantha and I and I saw that we were different, as I am from a small township where people lived in RDP houses that are 4 roomed houses and a toilet that is built outside of the house and Samantha alive in a suburb where they have a big garden outside her house and a big swimming pool. Samantha realized that her family has been living in that house from past generations meaning that they inherit the house from the years of apartheid. Samantha and I know see how apartheid affected both of us.

Apartheid made white people to gain more from the economy while they contributed less and black people gained less and contributed more to the economy. The apartheid government made white people benefit through giving white children better schools, good health care services and created more jobs where only white people could qualify and made them earn a lot. Even though white people were the minority race in the country, they were the wealthiest and majority of people living in South Africa were black and were seen as inferior by the government and earned little income that could not support black communities. Whites were Minority in South Africa because their population was the smallest but they were Superior and owned a lot more than black people. Many white people are inheriting of all the past wealth and are still the richest race in the country even though they are not in control.

In South Africa with its abnormal amounts of racial imbalance, disparity in income supply is mainly large and diligent. For an upper center pay nation South African social markers (e.g., life expectancy, newborn child mortality or nature of training) are nearer to those of lower center salary or even low pay nations. This reflects the unequal circulation of assets and openings.
Depending on the variable used to gauge imbalance, the day and age, and the dataset, South Africa’s Gini coefficient ranges from around 0.660 to 0.696. The Gini coefficient is the measure of wage inequality, extending from 0 to 1. 0 is a flawlessly square with society and an estimation of 1 speaks to a perfectly unequal society.
Land was distributed in an unfair manner during the apartheid era. Land strategy in South Africa is the course of the last one hundred years effectively supported the development of White business agriculture and entrepreneur profiteering through, whites owned more land than black people. They gained from the land because of the resources. Black people owned small portions of land where they also had to share with many other people because they were many and were not given the right to own big portions of land. The only way black people contributed was by working for white people as domestics or working at white people’s farms. The resolution of the land question for White capital was in this manner key to the making of contemporary South Africa.

Social and economic
Aspects like poverty and unemployment have an impact on people and on the economic well-being of the country. So Samantha and I discussed about how it affected us as two different races in the country. Aspects Unemployment prompts poverty, low personal satisfaction, social, political and financial ills. In the past we white people gained more from the economy and black people gained les. Times have changed and South Africa is democratic country so everyone is equal. The apartheid system is now distributing fairly amongst all the citizens of South Africa. Unlike the past, black people are now benefiting from the economy of the country. Even though everyone benefits from the economy the unemployment rate is high.
Black communities are mostly affected by unemployment. Referring to the educational level of people in townships is, Many Black people do not qualify for better jobs so they mostly relay on hard labor to earn income. Centralization is one of the courses for unemployment as people move from rural to urban to find employment which also causes population as the percentage of centralization increases. White people are also affected by the unemployment rate. The system of democracy which the South African law live under promotes communism which is aimed to reduce poverty in the country.

Poverty is a big issue in South Africa that affects both black people and white people. Many Black people in South Africa are living in poverty for the reasons of unemployment. Injustices
Injustices
The issue of land
During the arched era whites had owned big pieces of land than most black people. This brought a lot of confusion in the county because the original owners of the land in South Africa are black people. Me and Samantha discussed about this issue and were aware that white people still own most of the land in South Africa. White people came to South Africa and took black people’s land from them and took the resources from that land from black people and owned a lot more than black people. The apartheid system was very harsh and unfair to black people because it did not allow black people to own big portions of the land. This is still big issue in South Africa as many black people own small portions of land and are not are live in over populated places and white people still own most of the land in South Africa. Black people are the original owners of the land and are entitled to the land because it is proven in history that black people were the first people in South Africa because it shows their work. In terms of race, land brings a lot of conflict between black people and white people.

Political bias rule of law
In the latest of a long queue of such judgments, Judge Francis Loudi of the North Gauteng High Court in Pretoria delivered a scorching judgment during which he struck the names of Advocates Nomgcobo Jiba and Lawrence Mrwebi from the move of supporters. Both these authorities fill in as Deputy National Directors of the NPA; Jiba as Head of the National Prosecuting Services (NPS), and Mrwebi as Head of the Specialized Commercial Crimes unit. Every South African depend on the people who involve these presents on practice their impressive powers in handling sorted out wrongdoing and debasement. In any case, it has risen through different court cases and legitimate procedures that Jiba and Mrwebi have rather appeared to utilize their forces to ensure different people confronting genuine criminal charges; as opposed to in the general population intrigue.

Politics favored white people during the apartheid era and ignored the issues that black people were facing. The system was bias back then and people still have old wounds and it is hard for blacks and whites to relate because black people are still under the impression of white people being superior to them.

Unjustified desperation of human right
In the latest of a long queue of such judgments, Judge Francis Legodi of the North Gauteng High Court in Pretoria delivered a scorching judgment during which he struck the names of Advocates Nomgcobo Jiba and Lawrence Mrwebi from the move of supporters. Both these authorities fill in as Deputy National Directors of the NPA; Jiba as Head of the National Prosecuting Services (NPS), and Mrwebi as Head of the Specialized Commercial Crimes unit. Every South African depend on the people who involve these presents on practice their impressive powers in handling sorted out wrongdoing and debasement. In any case, it has risen through different court cases and appropriate procedures that Jibe and Mrwebi have rather appeared to use their forces to ensure different people confronting open criminal charges; as opposed to in the general population intrigue.

Presumably a standout amongst the most great accomplishments of human rights in South Africa is the peaceful progress of South Africa from draconian minority lead and across the board racial segregation under apartheid to larger part administer and general common freedoms under Democracy. Purposeful, organized vocal weight from both inside and outside South Africa for the finish of Apartheid and the foundation of human rights, were huge and basic. The voices of remote governments censured Apartheid through the media, while monetary approvals set weight on the decision National Party to make changes. Subsequently President Nelson Mandela broadly saw in his inaugural discourse as the nation’s first equitably chose president that South Africa had been ‘the untouchable of the world.’ This weight was supplemented by mounting inside weight, particularly through moving mass activity, common insubordination, and the furnished battle. Numerous from the abused larger part and some from the advantaged minority stood up in insubordination of Apartheid, encouraged by triumphs somewhere else on the planet, particularly that of the Civil Rights Movement in the USA under the authority of the Reverend Martin
Luther King Jnr. It is intriguing to take note of that Christianity and the congregation assumed as vital a part in the battle for a New South Africa as it did in America. Huge numbers of the noticeable pioneers of the battle were transparently Christian, similar to Albert Luthuli who was a lay priest in the Methodist Church and Desmond Tutu who turned into the principal dark Anglican Archbishop of Cape Town. Allan Boesak was chosen mediator of the Dutch Reformed Mission Church and furthermore leader of the World Alliance of Reformed Holy places, and went ahead to establish UDF. It ought to be noticed that the endeavors of activism as of now was not principally gone for the accomplishment of human rights, but instead at that of securing social liberties, and accordingly the UDF directed the inner battle in the interest of the at that point prohibited African National Congress (ANC). After the coming of popular government the concentration moved logically from affable to human rights
Divisions
Although division was caused by the apartheid system during the apartheid era, there is still division in the country. Comparing the division between black and white people during the years of apartheid and the current year we can see that there is change. Samantha from a suburb in the city that is mostly populated by white people and I am from a township fully populated by black people, which proves that black people are white people are still divided. Education is free for all South Africans but it is limited for blacks because schools in black people communities have no resources. Everywhere in the country. People were also divided according to their tribe or culture. There was segregation in public places like the public toilets. Black people were at a disadvantage
Labor
Employment is mostly available in the city and not in townships or urban areas where there are a lot of black people. This implied young men left their families for some time to go to the urban areas to earn income to support their families. This money was then offered over to the boss to pay charges. This ended up known as the arrangement of transient work – people moved all over the country, regularly a long way from home, to work for a short period of time and afterward come back to their families. There were few job opportunities in black communities, so they needed to go to the urban areas to get money so that they can be able to pay the government Tex.
The arrangement of migrant work prompted a few issues creating in black people communities: young men some of the time couldn’t marry until the point when they had completed a specific measure of work for the boss families were upset farms were left in the hands of women and youngsters in the urban area were more familiar with the western type of living, and did not have any desire to settle on the farms again the ancestral and traditional society was separated. The government introduced laws with secure white work – holding certain employments for white individuals just, and different jobs were kept for black people which were harsh and did not give black people salary to maintain family needs. Normally white people were given jobs that paid them a lot of money to help them take care of their family’s needs.

This impacts the way people live today as people are used to the idea that good jobs are only set for white people only. This also causes the high rate of unemployment, this can also affect white people because there are some white people who are struggling to find jobs and are desperate but the community will not consider them eligible for the job.

How to heal them
Samantha and I came with suggestions on how to heal and live as one as we are all South Africans. We can with ways in which people could try to move on and live for the present and not the past.

Economic
To begin with, exceptionally unequal country should to have steeply dynamic tax frameworks. South Africa is a case of an unequal nation that has a dynamic salary charge framework that raises a lot of income at generally ease and with moderately little tax avoidance. Organization charges are now a critical offer of expense income, however there might be extension to increment charges from mineral rents. There is likewise extension to raise encourage the level of tax assessment on the wealthiest 10%.

Education
This progressivity in education spending ought to go as far as possible up to tertiary level. Society needs to acknowledge that it costs a lot of money to conquer the acquired heritages of apartheid and the cycle of neediness, and consequently ought to be set up to spend assets to invert this inheritance. South Africa should focus more on building children in schools because only then could employment rate increase. If children are taught that race is no limitation for their dreams there canner be division when they grow up.

Gini coefficient
Obstructions to entry drive costs up and keep benefits high while discouraging speculation and work. Regularly, the most ideal method for upgrading rivalry is to lessen levies and enable section to outside organizations. Officeholders will contend this will cost occupations. As a rule, such opening up will bring down costs for poor people and for downstream businesses and decrease the financial rents that few individuals remove from the economy. There might be a case for ensuring some infant industries, yet these should be sensibly evaluated and ought not to be the standard.

Labor
Labor market strategy should first endeavor to accomplish full employment or as near full work as is socially desirable. Unemployment and underemployment are significant drivers of disparity. In settings of high unemployment rate, even low wage business will have positive welfare impacts and diminish the level of disparity. All around composed unemployment protection schemes really advance monetary productivity since they empower specialists to leave work and look for more reasonable business. At the point when nations are near full work, the lowest pay permitted by law approaches can possibly raise expectations for everyday comfort without fundamentally affecting on the level of business. In such manner, South Africa does not yet have the correct adjust to amplify
Conclusion
Samantha came to a conclusion that there were many variances between blacks and whites in South Africa during the apartheid era. Apartheid separated the two races but it is no different these days. South African poverty and imbalance are emphatically established in the work showcase. Regardless of the proceeding with significance of race, labor market race segregation has declined as reason for imbalance contrasted with different factors likewise frequently connected with race (e.g. education and training).

Coaching dissimilarity between races as reflected in years of guideline completed is as yet extensive, however has been significantly diminished in the earlier decades. For event, Lam (1999) exhibits the reduction in irregularity in years of preparing completed between two births accomplices detached by 30 years, Tutoring change flopped undoubtedly, even among blacks, while coaching uniqueness between the assorted races similarly hugely declined. If only people in South Africa could come together regardless of their race and skin color .Even though black people are given rights than before they are still excluded by the government system and they are ignored by the government. Most black people feel excluded from the system of South Africa.
Among blacks, educational lopsidedness by and large takes after the lines of salary: all the more fortunate families are better prepared to help their youths through school, surmising expanding stratification inside black society. Youngsters from the main two black deciles advance significantly preferred through the educational system over their poorer partners and just at age 15 begin falling behind whites. Case and Deaton (1999: 21) reason that private assets were a main consideration deciding differential dark instructive results under politically-sanctioned racial segregation.There is a huge space for progress for people of South Africa, Imbalances like education, Gini coefficient and unemployment and be improved if people could work costly together to make the future of South Africa brighter.

Reference list
Branson, N., Garlick, J., Lam, D., Leibbrandt, M. (2012). Education and equality: The South African Case. A South Africa labor and development research unit working paper number 75.CapeTown: SALDRU, University of Cape Town.

Freud, B. 1998. The making of and contemporary Africa. The development of African society since 1800: London Macmillian Press
Grasmus, N. 2018 Things we do as individuals in fighting racismpersonal interview 1 Mar 2018
Nattras,N.; Seekings,J.2005.Class,Race and Inequality in SouthAfrica.New.Heaven.Yale University Press.

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