Muslims term used in Islam also for

Muslims believe that only Islam provides the desired blueprint for the state and society carried out through the several options. RELIGIOUS OPTION Some Muslims fundamentalists seek to change the laws of their nation so as to make their laws based on Quran or Hadith. POLITICAL AND MILITARY Promotion of Islamic untiy and brotherhood through Islamic socialism and armed movements. JIHAD AS STRUGGLE. Literally, it means struggle. It is the most virtues deed according to the Hadith. It is the protector of all other deeds. This so because muslims can be at ease and able to lead their way of life without fear of the enemy. The person sacrifices his two beloved things, whoch are his lfe and his wealth unlike othes deeds. It can be conluded why other deeds cannot compete with Jihad. There is no need more virtuous and beloved by Allah. AS HOLY WAR. It is the term used in Islam also for holy war, against ones self from evil, warfare against unbelievers. The underlying idea being that, since Islam is a universal religiom force maybe used to expand its borders. When muslims, or theifr faith or terrtory are under attack, Islam permits the believer to wage military war to protect them. However, Islamic law (shariah) sets very strict rules for the conduct of such war. JIHAD AS DUTY. It is a duty incumbent on all Muslims, hence usually considered as one of the Pillars of Islam. JUSTIFICATIONS FOR JIHAD SELF DEFENSE The Quran is clear that self-defense is always underlying cause for waging a Jihad. PERMISSIBLE REASON FOR JIHAD Self-defense Strengthening Islam Protecting the freedom of Muslims to practice their faith WHAT IS JIHAD IS NOT Force people to convert to Islam Conquer other nations to colonize them Punishing an enemy who breaks an oath Putting right a wrong Protecting Muslims against oppression which could include overthrowing a tyrannical ruler. NON- POLITICAL MEANS Done through TABLIGH or TABLEEGH, the return to piety, the renewal of traditional Islam. Its followers, who aim at preparing themselves for the life hereafter are non-political. TABLIGH Literally, it means to reach out , to make known or to publicize. To make Islam known to people is called Tabligh. Tabligh movements tries to inspire everybody to do virtuous acts, and refrain from doing misdeeds and to call others to follow the true paths of Islam. RELIGIOUS COOPERATION It is any kind of sharing in non Catholic religious exercises and worship. Includes attendance at church services prayers, reception of sacraments, contributing to religious causes. PUBLIC. When catholic are engaged as an organized religious group in a specifically non catholic religious or services. PRIVATE When catholics do as an individual ACTIVE. When positive actions are performed in specifically non catholic religious worship and services. PASSIVE When one is present but not contributing any positive acts Church Position on Religious Cooperation PRE VATICAN All catholic practice in associating with non catholics in religious activities is governed by the principle that the catholic church and she alone, has received from God the fullness of teaching and the perfection of worship whereby man must be saved. VATICAN II All men are called to the catholi unity of the people of God. To it in different ways, belong to or are ordered the catholic faithful, others who believe in Christ, and finally all mankin, called by Gods grace to salvation. LG 13. VAT. II INTERRELIGIOUS DIALOGUE AND ECUMENISM Ways by which the church reaches out the different degrees of membership in the church to foster Christian unity. This is undertaken through common prayers, worship, study and even through social activities. Areas Of Religious Cooperation COMMON WORSHIP Common study Mass communications COMMON WORSHIP It is not to be considered as a means to be used indiscriminately for the restoration of christian unity. There are 2 main principles governing the oractice of common worship Bearing witness to the unity of the Church Sharing in the means of grace Unity and grace, witness to Common study. Such study CHARITY YET LOYALTY It is important to be mindful of the great difference between charity and tolerance toward people of other beliefs, on the one hand, and compromise religious thruths on the other. We are obliged to show charity and at the same time loyalty to our faith. THE THEOLOGICAL VIRTUE OF HOPE HOPE IN SACRED SCRIPTURE HOPE IN THE OLD TESTAMENT OLD TESTAMENT The religious response to faith is hope. This hope consits of Trust in God (Job 1118, Ps. 910). Eagreness to seek reguge from ones foes and rely on him for immediate deliverance (Ps. 511, 177, 2520). Confident expectation of good, for future gladness whisch becomes the occasion for present rejoicing (Ps. 135, Prov. 1028). Patience and courage, confident that the Lord will bring forth salvation (Ps. 3124, 3318-22, 7112-14.) OBJECT OF HOPE Initial Promise Promise Land Born Again Hope Messianic Era INITIAL PROMISE It was meant precisely for posterity sake which suggests a scope that greatly exceeded the extent of a simple descent (Gen. 122). PROMISED LAND God fulfilling his promise by guiding his people and defending their land. Being established they started thinking about an earthly kingdom. BORN AGAIN HOPE The Babylonian exile taught them to hope anew deliverance, salvation and return to their homeland (Jer. 2313, Is. 4041, Ez 3640). MESSIANIC ERA The announcement of the messianic reign is often inluded with reference to the return from Exile (Jer. 30, Ez. 38-39). The prophets proclaimed the imminence of the day will be a day of terror and not of joy but will be blessing for the remnants of Israel. It will mark the establishment of the kingdom, Israeel first before all nation. The Messiah His reign will consist in the universal recognitionof His divine right then new era will begin. Finally, the Messiah will be the person chosen to be the instrument in the establisment of the kingdom. HOPE IN THE NEW TESTAMENT NEW TESTAMENT Hope would consist of the following Synoptics St. John St. Paul SYNOPTICS Characteristics Christ identifies the kingdom in terms of interiority (Lk. 1720). It points beyond itself to the consummation in the future life. Its spirituality gives birth to a hope which while retaining continuity, goes radically beyond it. 2 Directional Hope Streches out to the future and at the same time holding fast to the past. The object of this new hope is no longer the establishment of the Messianic kingdom but the fulfillment and unversality of the kingdom, in the final event of the seconnd coming. APOSTLES For the apostles, the new hope is proclaimed as the expectation of the full revelation and consumation of what was begun. ST. JOHN Emphasizes that eternal life whose full realization lies in the future, has nevertheless already begun with us (Jn. 524). Hope is presented in the term of seeking the glory of God and the foolishness of trusting anyone except God (544). BOOK OF REVELATION Presents in a symbolic manner the kingdom man hopes for like the utter confidence in the day of ultimate triumph, the new heavens and earth. The Christian looks forward to the day when he finally possesses what he hopes for (Rev. 213). ST. PAUL Hope is born out of the darkness of faith (1Cor. 11, Thess. 13, Col. 14). God himself is the author author of hope trough the power of the Holy Spirit (Rom. 153) who is Gods gift given to man awaiting what is yet to come (Eph. 13). An assurance which is reverent yet unwavering (Heb. 613, 1023). Looks beyond the horizon of this world to a heavenly kingdom (2Tim. 41). As a daring upon God, the Christian symbol for hope is the anchor (617). Christian anchor It signifies divine security, far removed from complacency since its sole trust s the constancy of God. Enables man to overcome the vicissitude of this life, including sin. Christian hope is firlmly fixed in the concrete and real avents of history, and above all, in the event of Christs resurrection (1Cor 1519). HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE THEOLOGICAL VIRTUE OF HOPE Post Apostolic Age Milleniarismorigenismst. Cyril of Alexandria St. Augustine POST APOSTOLIC AGE Hope is Its object is not only the immediate future but somehow characterized by the awareness that salvation is already occuring here and now. Focus on the parousia The predominant awareness is that God has acted decisively in the Death and Resurrection of Christ. Salvation has already been achieved once and for all. The predominant.. The end time is here, already approaching consummation. Hence, Christian life is focused on the PAROUSIA. MILLENIARISM In the delay of the Parousia, new reflections uon its occurrence, in terms of time and place, resulted n an over all literal approach to the bible which is called CONCORDISM. Concordism The belief based on the accounts of creation in Genesis and revelation of the Parousia, it would inaugurate a thousand year rign of Christ with the elect in a temporal kingdom to take place at the beginning of what should be the seventh millenium. Much of this blief can be attributed to a reaction against the prevalent mystery religions of neo paganism and the erroneous historical tendencies of Gnosticism. ORIGENISM Origen (ca 254) who read Scriptures in an allegorical mode see the Parousia, devoid of all spatio-temporal, merely as the manifestation of Christs divinity and redemtive triumph to all men at the consumation of things. Apocatastasis He believes the doctrine which affirms universal salvation with the ultimate restoration of all thing in Christ. It sees in the advent of Christ an evolutionary process whrein the final destiny of all creation is its restoration to that primal condition. Apocatastasis doctrine The acknowledgement of a generral rehabilitation of the damned with the denial of the eternity of hell brings the following conclusions Salvation as something which one is personaly assured. Removes from the eager longing for salvation any trace of fearand replaces it, at the most, with an impatience. CYRIL OF ALEXANDRIA Together with Jon Chrysostom, Basil, Hilary, Cyril of Jerusalem they made a return to the earlier understanding of the eternal punishment for sinners. ST. AUGUSTINE Souls are rewarded immediately after death (though he understood that final completion of such reward would have to wait the general resurrection). He had set out the main features of Christian eschatology, namely Eternity of hell. Immediate reward of thise who died ffaithfull to God Genuine resurrectionof the flesh and not in some ethereal matter Undeveloped theory on the purificationof souls from attachment to sin after death and prior to the entrance of heaven. ST. THOMAS AQUINAS The beatific vision constitutes the very essence of blessedness is an intuitive act of the finite intelligence ashieved by the divine essence. It was also he who gave the characteristics of the body of the blessed in heaven as likened to that of the resurrected body of Christ Clarity Agility Subtle Impassibility JOHN XXII.. BENEDICT XII.. Resolved the following The intuitive vision of the divine essence in uninterrupted and eternal bliss The immediate descent of the wicked into hell. The eventual resurrectio of their bodies to share in their dishonor. No explicit mention of the eternity of hell. MARTIN LUTHER PRINCIPLE OF JUSTIFICATION One needs only to believe to rest secure. Salvation comes from noother quarter-not from the good work, neither from personal merits. It is part of faith to have unshakable certainty in ones own salvation. To doubt this is to doubt Gods power and mercy. If man believes, God makes him just, without demanding any prior righteousness. Luthers language if taken literally, connotes something more than trust a sureness which is rather in the order of knowledge which belongs to the category of faith. JANSENISM Protestant movement within Catholicism. Originated from Louvain and sorbonne from Corneliu Jansen (1638) in his book Augustinus. However, it was his followers who implemented his spirit. Massa Perditionis of Jansenism Exaggerated pessimistically the depravity of mans nature that human freedom loses all capacity whatsoever for mora and religious uprightness. The cause of the corruption of nature is original sin, making all mankind a Massa perditionis. From it God has rescued only those who are his elect, only for them has Chrst died. The elect are distinguished by their righteousness and others who remained sinners are excluded from genuine membership in the Church of Christ. This dctrine gives way to religious fatalism which tends towards complacency or paralyzing despair. QUIETISM Proponents were the Spaniard Michael Mollinos (1696), the French Madame Guyon, Francois Lacomb and Archbishop Fenelon in the late seventeenth-century. Extreme passivity They share the mysticism that uged extreme passivity before God in which the soul, avoiding all initiative and moral striving, seeks a self-effacing mystical absorption in the divine. Incompatible with this is any seeking of reward, merit of perfection. Pure Love Also denial of any motivation by fear of punishment. Pure love is the despoiling of any trace of self-interest. To seek God as ones own happiness is, in effect, a disguished egotism. Hope is thus denied the status of a genuine Christian virtue. PAGE MERGEFORMAT 10 FFpkjjpi( Y, 4IsNXp
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