Music instruments are regularly featured. On top

Music is one of the
basic needs for everyone that living in current society. Music were categorised into four eras
and six periods by historiographers. Also, each part of music has contributed
to today’s world and society. (Espie Estrella, 2017) According to Benjamin
Hollis (n,d), the Prehistoric music is commonly
called as primitive music.
Strona g?ówna (n,d) said that human voice was
probably the first musical instrument, the human may make good use of what they
are having at that time. In order to obtain the rhythm, people use their hand
to clap or hit two stones with each other. Then, the Ancient Music. Then, Greek
music also started in Ancient music. (Ancient Music, n.d) The
oldest discovered musical instruments belong
to this period.
For another example,
the oldest written song was written in Cuneiform in approximately 3400years ago
from Ugarit. After that, according to Priceless Eternity Blog, (2010) the Biblical Period. Biblical Period begins because of
religion and music are study by everyone at the same time. According to
Easton’s Bible Dictionary, Jubal also known as the forefather of musicians
invented musical instruments in Biblical Period. Lastly, the Early Music. Early
Music begins in 1973. Oxford
Academic, (n.d) said that scholars and performers
contribute by exploring every aspect of early musical repertories. In this
time, many musical instruments are regularly featured.


On top of that, the six periods of music are categorized by the western
art music. Firstly, the Middle Ages in this period Western Europe has entered a
time known as “The Dark Age”. During this time, Pope Gregory I believe to have
collected the music known as Gregorian Chant. Secondly,
the Renaissance, with the rise of human, scared music began to break free of
the confines of the church. The word ‘Renaissance’ which literally defined as
‘rebirth’ and ‘reconstruction’. Thirdly, the Baroque Age starts between 1600
and 1700. During this period, the composers began to rebel against the style
that common during High Renaissance. Then, the Classical Period. During this
period, Vienna became the musical centre of Europe and music were often being
in Vietnamese style. Also,
the Romantic Era. This period, artist of all kinds became intent in expressing
their personal emotion and style of music were romantic. Lastly, the Twentieth-Century
artists of all nationalities were searching for exiting or different modes of
expressing. (Robert Sherrane, n.d)This study aims to explore
how does different genre of music affects student’s emotions. In addition, this
study also aims to help students to get rid of stress and exhaustion also to be
a cheerful and confident student so that everyone is able to cope with stress
and unhappiness. This research allows the researcher to understand more on a few variables that relevant
and effect of different genre of music
which is individual emotions, an easier way for students to study, stress and
anxiety. Surveying for student’s favourite genre of music and find out about
what makes students to feel better and motivated after listening to music. For
instance, the different genres of music affect students differently as
every student have their own favourite and this research will help them to find
out which genre music they would wanted to listen and which genre of music that
are able to help them and make their life and studies easier. Moreover,
this research is able to help students to develop a healthier emotion with good
use of music. Additionally, this research also
shows how the different genres of music can enhance a student emotional feeling. For example, students show
uplifting or depressing after listening to different genre of music.

According to
Swathi Swaminathan and E. Glenn Schellenberg (2015), researchers divided
findings into 3 areas and show it as a result. Firstly, the connection and
opinionon music affect emotion. Then the researchers look in to the consequences
of emotion after listening to music. Lastly, predictors of music choices. The first
finding was emotion by musical expression. In this finding, the researchers
wanted to find out does music from different cultures share common features. Several
main findings determine the worldwide cues to emotion in music. Human communications
were also to be relevant as some cues of music to emotion. Moreover, the researchers
claim that happy speech in English or Tamil are larger pitch than sad speech
therefore, music that sounds happier from Western and South Indian also has
larger pitch. Also, high-arousal emotion which is happiness or anger indicates
faster rates as compared to low-arousal emotion. Then in the second findings
included the affective responses to music. For example, there are a consequence
of extra-musical factors, such as when music was playing loudly by neighbour at
night when individual trying to sleep, this is where when the affective
responses occur. In addition, the last findings are music preferences. Music
preferences are where the choices of the music of individual to listen therefore,
a specific genre of music that chosen by individual to listen. The researchers
found out that individuals more likely to listen to happy music than listening
to sad music.

Tuomas Eerola (2012) states that communication of emotions by music have
great attention and has been studied by many researchers. The researchers foresee
about the emotion responses after listening to music. The researcher indicates
two main subtopics in this research, first is the role to compute model in understanding
music processing and the second is the principles of model construction. This research
shows how the participants or the listeners expressed their emotion when they
were listening to music by checking their affective states. The music that the
listeners listened were different genres of Western Music. The researchers also
claim that musical features affect individual’s emotion when listening to music
than emotional experiences. Also, emotion models were branches into three types,
firstly music specific then, dimensional lastly, discrete. Therefore, discrete were
used in non-musical contexts. Then, emotions were those basic emotion like
happiness, hatred, sadness and more. Moreover, there was a two-dimensional circumplex
model which is also the most classical model. It come out with all affective
state were normally begins from two independents. Therefore, a few alternatives
and varied emotions were not able to be represented.

According to Laura Tiemann and David Huron (2011),
the researchers aims to find out the relationship between modality which is
minor or major and dynamics which is piano or forte on four effects and divided
into major and minor. Firstly, 10 major mode with forte which is loud dynamic
level. Then, 10 major mode with piano which is quiet dynamic level. Whereas for
the minor are 10 minor mode with forte which is loud dynamic level and 10 minor
mode with piano which is quiet dynamic level. The method used in this research
was the researchers will be checking the affective content of lyrics for song
and prepare into four parts of major or minor and forte or piano. After that, participants
were asked to judge and give opinion on the lyrics of the for songs from the major
or minor and forte or piano that prepared by the researchers. The results show
that it consistent with the research hypothesis which is sad music are generally
minor and piano music. Other than that, major and piano lyrics acquired to be
highest tenderness rating. However, it does not have much different from major
and piano lyrics. Also, the findings show that happy music are also usually
major and forte music. However, it does not have much different from minor and
forte lyrics. Then, the minor and forte lyrics were acquired to be the highest
passion rating. According to
Ronald S Friedman, Elana Gordis and Jens Forster (2012), the researchers
conducted three experiments to improve the methodology limitation of previous
studies. The first and second experiment involved sad versus neutral whereas
the third experiment involved sad versus neutral versus happy. In this research,
the researchers asked the participants that do they believing in listening to
every music and will results in affecting their current emotion and the condition
of participants selecting
a song or music to listen. The results show that the participants in sad
affective states were not willing to listen to sad songs. The participants
strongly hesitate to listen to happy songs and they do not think that listening
to sad song in sad affective states may affect their emotion severely.
The first experiment
clearly demonstrated that sad mood influences music choice and participants in
the sad affective states that have chosen songs that will make them feel even more
sad. In the second experiment shows that individual in sad and neutral mood
condition wish to listen to sad songs however, they did not wish to listen to
happy song. Lastly, the last experiment shows that participants in happy mood
condition did not wish to listen to sad song than the participants in neutral
mood condition. The three experiments were conducted to test the influence of
sad mood on music preferences. Results show that sad individuals were not
willing to listen to happy songs. Lastly, results also show that individual in
happy mood should not be listening to expressively sad music.


Lastly, the third part of the survey is to find out what student feel
when listening to music while studying or memorizing facts. The purpose of
having this question in this survey is to help students to learn an easier way
to study as if they love to listen to music while study. Research has been
proven that listening to music while study will increase student’s ability to
understand the facts. Research by Su, Kao, Hsu, Pan, Cheng and Huang (2016),
this experiment shows results of obvious indication that listen to Mozart’s
background music can benefit students as they are able to enhance their
learning skill. Question for participants was “Do you think listening to
unemotional music are able to increase the ability to understand and memorise
in study?” and “Do you think listening to emotional music are able to increase
the ability to understand and memorise in study?”

Past research
by Myriam V. Thoma, Roberto La Marca, Rebecca Brönnimann, Linda Finkel, Ulrike
Ehlert, Urs M. Nater (2013) shows that listening to background music has it
benefits that shows impact on health by stress-reducing effect. The findings
also indicate that listening to music will affect the autonomic nervous system
and lesser degree of endocrine and psychological stress response. These research
findings were consistent with this question survey as music are able to reduce
and slowly overcome stress.


            Research by Su, Y., Kao, C., Hsu,
C., Pan, L., Cheng, S., & Huang, Y. (2017) that was tried to investigate
how does the Mozart’s music affects student’s in reading skills. Findings show students
to enhance their reading skill by listening to Mozart as background music. Also,
students gave feedback listening to Mozart’s music were able to cooldown them
into a relaxing mood therefore, students were able to perform well. Two
findings between past research and this research were not consistent and
counter each other due to different individual have different behaviour and
thoughts, participants in past research may be biased on Mozart’s music and
participants in this research maybe biased on listening to music will only
distract themselves when studying.


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