Multiple in the first place (Doc D).

 Multiple alterations were made in the years of 1860-1877. Both social and constitutional developments were carried out in the span of seventeen years which shaped the state of the American nation. Major constitutional developments were the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation, the Reconstruction period, and the three civil war amendments. Social developments that were significant yet contradictory, were the Ku Klux Klan organization, the Freedmen’s Bureau, and the Black Codes. Yet, some might argue that the social changes alone have made a lot more impact on the fundamentals or principles that once were followed, and amounted to a revolution to a larger extent. However, both social and constitutional developments, to a large extent, amounted to a revolution together.     The signing of the Emancipation Proclamation, issued by Abraham Lincoln, marked a definite end to slavery. His aim was to preserve the Union but after the South had seceded (Doc A), he saw the abolition of slavery necessary. Since the system of slavery won’t be eradicated on its own, and Lincoln himself, had no right to interfere with the Southern states’ decision on keeping slavery or not, this allowed the states in a way to hold a lot of power (Doc B). If the federal government themselves intervened on the matter of slavery, it will be seen as a threat to the rights if the South, which caused the secession of the Southern States in the first place (Doc D). Slavery had to be demolished under constitutional terms. The Reconstruction period, following the Civil War, lasted from the years of 1865-1877. It aimed to rebuild or repair the South or the United States as a whole (Doc B). Since the system of slavery was no longer utilized due to the Proclamation and the war, ensuring protective rights to the African Americans under the three Civil War Amendments, or also known as the Reconstruction Amendments. The thirteenth amendment officially nullified slavery in all states or territories. The fourteenth amendment permits citizenship to any male and they’re entitled to all laws and protection. The Civil Rights Law of 1866, similar to the fourteenth, further confirmed that all citizens are secured or protected by law equally. It was a revolutionary act in Senator Lot Morrill’s eyes (Doc F). The fifteenth amendment ensured African American males the right to vote. The first time African Americans participated in a political matter was a big deal, of course, considering it was avoided for many years (Doc G).     The Freedmen’s Bureau was instituted in the year of 1865 by Congress to assist both the poor whites and former black slaves after the end of the war. The Freedmen’s Bureau was able to provide housing and medical aid, food, and built schools as well. However, it attempted to rearrange confiscated or abandoned land to the African Americans (Doc E). However, they weren’t successful, failing to secure African Americans’ rights of having the opportunity to purchase land. The Ku Klux Klan organization, also known as KKK, was founded in 1866. Their goal was to restore white supremacy and neglected the policies of the Reconstruction era. The Ku Klux Klan tormented African Americans and white activists by destroying black institutions such as churches and schools. The government attempted to protect the African Americans from the organization by passing the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871, to eradicate the civil unrest (Doc H). Thomas Nast, a cartoonist, drew attention to the issue of what the organization KKK had inflicted upon African Americans, along with the White League, making the Reconstruction period worse than slavery due to the circumstances faced (Doc I). Black codes were contrived, under Andrew Johnson’s reconstruction policies, to set constraints on African Americans’ freedom after slavery was annulled. Southern states enforced blacks to sign yearly labor contracts but faced consequences if they disobeyed. The North was infuriated by the codes, acknowledging that it went against the basis of the concept of free labor. The Reconstruction Act of 1867 made the Southern States obligated to ratify the fourteenth amendment, and then the fifteenth amendment was adopted three years later. This was conducted not only to protect African Americans’ rights but also to help reunite the Union (Doc B).     On the contrary, some may argue that social developments alone had a lot more impact or lead to a revolution to a larger extent. The social developments pinpointed certain areas that underlined the ideas that would amount to a revolution. For example, the black codes instance caused the North to outrage when it was implemented.  It undermined African Americans’ rights by bringing back the concept of slavery. This particular case required the South to ratify the fourteenth amendment. The ratification of an important amendment had resulted through a specific situation. It was a social development that had prompted the formation of the noteworthy amendment, or a constitutional development in general. However, constitutional developments marked or set final stances. More action or contributions are needed to modify what the amendments or acts (constitutional developments) entrenched and clarified. For instance, the thirteenth amendment, which asserted an end to slavery. Hence, constitutional developments would lead to a revolution to a greater extent since it is simply more difficult to alter and oppose.     In essence, both social and constitutional developments have amounted to a revolution to a large extent. The social and constitutional developments targeted areas that reformed institutions and principles that were once practiced. The Emancipation Proclamation, the Reconstruction Period, and the three civil war amendments, the thirteenth, the fourteenth, and the fifteenth amendments, have reestablished the status of African Americans and where they lie in the social ladder. The Ku Klux Klan organization, the Freedmen’s Bureau, and the black codes were instituted either in the favor or disdain toward the African Americans. Altogether, both developments have contributed greatly toward a revolution. 


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