Multiculturalism is very difficult how should describe. However, the meaning of multiculturalism is the national cohabitation of difference cultures such as ethnic, religious, language, customs and tradition which might have variations and dissimilarities in traditional actions, cultural assumptions and morals, impression of philosophy and association types (Chu,M ,2015). Multicultural has to be divided into two types of multicultural an observable fact is typical of countries which empirical multicultural societies and normative multicultural societies. In recent year, the world is becoming a global village society because of people migrate for many different reasons such as economic, social, political and environmental.
Normative multicultural societies have been built on migration because of economic and colonial such as California, America, Portugal, France. Some countries multicultural has been formed by its many thousand year ago history, unique geography and diverse demography which is the adoptment of projection based on evidence such as Myanmar, China and India which is called empirical multicultural societies.Some people believe that multicultural is more popular after finished the world War (II) because of legacy which taking about boundary in colonialism. However, multicultural society is an inimitably phenomenon started in 5th century BC. In current century, many different cultures and leads on to split the society. Therefore, a multicultural society is outdated.
This essay will discuss whether multiculturalism as a political ideology is modern, multicultural societies existed in the past, for example in Myanmar. It will start by outlining the colonial and economic multicultural become start after World war (II) such as Canadian and United State. Next, it will demonstrate some the history of American multiculturalism. Finally, this essay will argue that multicultural societies are not a popular situation in the recent century due to its ancient multi-language, multi-religion and multi-ethnic in Myanmar.Some people accept that multicultural societies have started with the huge immigration waves after the Second World War, when several began to emigrate to western countries. In recent century, when talking about Multiculturalism, probably the first two countries that come to mind are the United States and Canada.
In both countries, it is based on the same concept in but with an entirely difference constructions. Both of these countries are known for their opportunities and their so-called acceptances of newcomers from all around the World. Canada’s history of settlement and colonization has resulted in a multicultural society made up of three founding peoples-Aboriginal, French, and British and of many other racial and ethnic groups (Dewing, 2009).
. Therefore, Canada multicultural can be able to call colonial multiculturalism which the situation of first nations in Canada. Colonial Multiculturalism also evolves from imperial situations, but from situations where the hierarchical difference between the cultures in present were judged important especially from situations where there were great differences of political power between the groups. According to Dewing, “Canadian’s federal multiculturalism policy has evolved through three developmental phases: the incipient stage (pre-1971;) the formative period (1971-1081), and institutionalization (1982 to the present)” (ibid). Multiculturalism policies have a good consequence in promoting the development of cultural integration. Canadian’s policies on multiculturalism have had mainly positive effects on Canadian society. Apart from reducing ethnic tensions within Canada, the practice of multiculturalism gave a special identity to Canada at the global. Canadian governments have effectively used multiculturalism to promote Canadian political and business (Srikawth.
H, 2018). It takes into account the type of political response that is offered to the multicultural situation, as suggested earlier, the political response is to some extent constitutive of the situation. Multiculturalism as a policy refers to various initiatives and programmes designed in order to manage socio-cultural diversity(Jain, 2014). Canada’s multiculturalism is the modern phenomenon which influence from exHowever, the diversity characterizing contemporary Myanmar is a consequence of a long historical process extending over 2th century BC. Knowing history is important because many races and tribes since time immemorial have shaped Myanmar culture.
Beginning from the ancient period to modern through medical times. Each ethnic contributed to the language, literature, art, architecture, Religion. For instance, In Myanmar, the Myazedi (Rajakumar) Quadrilingual stone inscription, located in Bagan Historic city, is unique and significance written documents of Myanmar history, religion and culture in 12th century A.D (Wanna.K ; Yoshiki.
M, 2005). The inscription inscribed in A.D 1113. There are described with four languages, such as Pyu, Mon, Myanmar and Pali, on each of the four faces. Myazedi Stone inscription Myazedi stone inscription is the earliest Myanmar language document with chronological date(ibid). Moreover, The making of 550 Jataka (Buddha life stories) pictures in low relief on terracotta plaques, on stuccos, added by mural paintings on the walls and ceiling of stupas, temples and monasteries, provided with a narration of Pali, Mon and Myanmar Literature(Khin.
S, 2007). These archaeological evidence shows that multi-language existed since 11th century in Myanmar country. Another point to consider is that multi-religion is also an important to describe when described about the multicultural societies in Myanmar. Multi- religions have appeared over a period of more than 1,000 years between ca. 200 BCE and 900 CE in the Dry Zone of the middle Ayeyarwaddy (Irrawaddy) River basin within the territory of what is today modern Myanmar (Morris, nd). There have been excavated archaeological sites internally and externally, the others brick mounds that have not been dug put and a multitude of pagoda, stupas, and monasteries that belong to the later period.
The archaeological finds also indicate a widespread presence of Tantric Buddhism, Mahayana Buddhism and Hinduism. Avalokite?vara (Lokanatha) (called Lawkanat) in Burmese; , Tara, Manusi, Buddhas, Vai?rava?a, and Hayagriva, all prominent in Mahayana Buddhism, were very much part of Pyu (and later the Pagan) iconography scene. Various Hindu Brahman iconography ranging from the Hindu trinity, Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, to Garuda and Lakshmi have been found, especially in Lower Burma. The belief in Hinduisms can be found on the Hindu Temple Nat-Hlaing-Kyaung in Old Bagan, built around the 10th century CE, is unique to the temples build in Myanmar. The Burmese who built the kingdom of Bagan from the 9th century CE.
Anawrahta of Bagan Theravada Buddhism, and Tipitaka brought by King Anawrahta from Thahton the help of Shin Arahan. Mahayana Buddhism (Buddhism of Northern India) also was prevalent (Khin.S, 2007). Therefore, Bagan paintings both Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism reflect a mixture of influences of Hindu deities were presented in paintings for followers of Hinduism. Buddhism, Brahmanism, Hinduism and Jainism religion, religious architecture and art must be understood to at least a basic standard to appreciate the importance that religion and art had on the construction of ancient religious, monastic architecture, sculpture and ritual. These, archaeological evidence show that multi-religion starts since 2th century BC in Myanmar. Religion is a system of beliefs and practices which unite its membership in one moral community.
These practices and beliefs refer, as a rules, to transcendental non-empirical spheres and follow from a priori assumptions in the past century. As a consequently, In the past century In addition, Ancient Burma (Myanmar) is commonly split into Upper Burma ‘Pyu’ and Lower Burma Mon cultures, an ethnic classification of walled site cultures in the Irrawaddy (Ayeyarwaddy) basin that began with fourth to ninth century C.E. scripts. Pagan, “King Thamudarit is credited with assembling nineteen village headmen in 107 C.E.
(Win Maung (Tampawaddy) 2006) . Pyu culture, not least to recognise the multiple Tibeto-Burman groups of chronicles and more empirically the striking diversity of artefacts at walled sites from Tagaung to Thagara. The peoples of ancient chronicles travelled past many places before choosing sites to construct ramparts and manufacture burial vessels.
All the walled sites connect in one way or other to the Irrawaddy, but beyond that, given that movement was along the smaller watercourses, the homogeneity is lost. Tagaung for instance, maps out along the Uru and Shweli Rivers, Beikthano reaches east to the Samon, and Sriksetra south to the delta, with its lineage only latterly pulled north to legitimate the new rulers of Pagan. Just as local beliefs and materials, from rubies and gold to clay and stone, brought meaningful form to the material cultures that informed chronicles, all should contribute to our interpretation of that past (cited by Moore, 2009). In conclusion, this essay argued that multicultural societies are not a modern phenomenon because of multi-ethnic, multi-languages and multi-religion had over a long-time period. Myanmar, as a result of this, the Canadian’s Multicultural Policy has a number of disadvantage on the Multiculturalism. Moreover, many differences in religious beliefs and practices, ethnic rituals, or certain ways of life that may cause a rift between two or more groups which leads on to split the society.
In addition, Similarly, there was a numerous recent conflict in multiculturalism in the United Kingdom, American and United State and so on. Myanmar multicultural societies is etiological or causal. That is to say it is a historical criterion. are not public political identities.