Muhammed Furkan OzgenIstanbul Sehir UniversityPolitical Science-IR 214100893POLS 422-American Foreign PolicyII. Midterm AnswersQuestion: Explain Cold War eraAmerican presidential doctrines.
What are they and what do they entail? Providea detailed analysis of these doctrines and their contextual background.Answer: The World War II is the bloodiest warin the history of humanity. That took place between 1939 and 1945.
According tosome scholars, 50 million people died in this war. Weapons of mass destructionwere firstly used in this war (Atomic Bomb). The great powers of that era joinedin this war. Parties are separated as the Allies (UnitedKingdom, Soviet Union, United States of America, Republic of China and France) and the Axis (Germany, Italy and Japan ) powers. The war ended in 1945with the victory of the Allied Powers against Axis Powers. At the end of thewar, two superpowers emerged.
The United States of America and Soviet Union. Thesetwo superpowers started a proxy war which is called ‘Cold War’. Term Cold Warrefers: Continuing political, psychological, economic, scientific andtechnological tension between the East and West Blocks led by the United Statesand the Soviet Union.
According to scholars Cold War started in 1947 and endedin 1991 with the disintegration of the Soviet Union. During that time these twosuperpowers invested tremendous of money on technology and militarydevelopments. This tension brought political, economic and technologicaldevelopments to the world. Such as widespread of nuclear energy, economicdevelopment plans, political treaties, the establishment of international governmentaland nongovernmental organizations, space exploratories etc.
Every gun that is made, every warship launched, everyrocked fired signifies, in the final sense, a theft from those who hunger andare not fed, those who are cold and are not clothed. The world in arms is notspending alone. It is spending the sweat of its laborers, the genius of itsscientists, the hopes of its children. Under the cloud of threatening war, itis humanity hanging from a cross of iron (Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1953). In this context. We will analyze and explainthe doctrins of the United States during the cold war era namely: Truman Doctrine,Eisenhower Doctrine, Kennedy Doctrine, Johnson Doctrine, Nixon Doctrine, CarterDoctrine and Reagan Doctrine.Truman Doctrine:Harry Truman is the 33’rd president of theUnited States of America.
He became president in 1945 after the death of FranklinRoosevelt. Some scholars suggest that Cold War era started with TrumanDoctrine. After World War II, Soviet Union experienced an extreme growth inalmost every aspect. The ideology of the Soviet Union (communism) began tospread to the neighboring countries. Naturally, this ideology was a seriousthreat to the countries that embrace the idea of capitalism. As we know thebiggest capitalist is the United States so this ideological expansion indirectlythreat to the American way of life. Basically Truman believed that he shouldfight against the communism idea.
President Truman declared this doctrine inCongress on March 12. I believe that it must be the policy of the United States tosupport free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armedminorities or by outside pressures (Harry S. Truman American Congress March 12 1947). According to this doctrine, United Stateswill give financial and military assistance to the countries which arestruggling with the pressure from communist countries. For this purposepresident, Truman requested 400 million dollars from Congress in order to helpthese countries. Truman donated 300 million dollars financial aid to the Greekcentral government and weapons used in World War II. This support started the weakeningof the communism idea in that region.
Also due to the geographical position andthe pressure of Russia. Turkey received 100 million dollarseconomic and military aid.This doctrine was seen as the first step towards becoming an ally inTurkish-American relations. Truman doctrine is a more political and economic doctrinethan any other doctrines we will examine it further. Truman doctrine is morethan just a plan to provide financial aid to countries. This doctrine also emergedthe Marshall Plan. Marshall plan is an economic aid package recommended by theUnited States after World War II.
This package, proposed in 1947, was put intoeffect between 1948 and 1951 and 16 countries benefited from this package.Because of six-year warsconsumed the economic resources of all countries. Marshall plan donated 6 billion dollars economic aid to the EuropeanStates. This aid has reached 12 billion dollars in the upcoming years. As aresult of Marshall’s aid within three years, industrial production in Europeincreased by 25% and agricultural production increased by 14%. On 16 April1948, 16 European countries established the European Economic CooperationOrganization thanks to Marshall Plan. Another result of Truman Doctrine wascreating NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) on 4 April 1949.
Of course,there are a lot of things that are caused by the Truman Doctrine. Such asnuclear deterrence, new friendly policies, the establishment of internationalorganizations, the establishment of the Israel state, proposal to resolve the confusionin the Middle East, Korean War etc.EisenhowerDoctrine: Dwight David Eisenhower is the 34t’h President of the United States.Basically, on January 5, 1957 President Eisenhower revealed the EisenhowerDoctrine.
The main purpose of this doctrine is to provide military and economicassistance to the Middle East countries, and to deploy friendly forces tofriendly countries in the event of an attack from the communist bloc. For thispurpose, he was asked to Congress spend $ 200 million every year. After that thebill approved by the House of Representatives. The main reason for the establishment of the doctrine was the SuezCrisis (1956). Egypt wanted to nationalize the Suez Canal.
With theintervention of the English and French, a war emerged. But this war was haltedby the intervention of the Soviet Union and the US. The Soviet Union supportednationalist Arabs in this issue. After this support, the idea of communismspread to the Middle East. To prevent this, the United States emerged theEisenhower Doctrine.
As a result of the EisenhowerDoctrine. US and Middle East relations have gained momentum. The US-USSR ColdWar also spread into the Middle East. This cold war in the Middle East wasdivided into two. Turkey, Greece, Iraq, Lebanon, Tunisia, Libya, Afghanistan,Morocco, Pakistan, Israel gave a positive answer to doctrine. Saudi Arabiareacted negatively but later changed it’s attitude.
Jordan, Egypt, and Syriaturned their policy on this doctrine. When we look at these two doctrines,(Eisenhower and Truman Doctrine) the Middle East has always been important forthe United States.KennedyDoctrine:John F. Kennedy is the35’th president of the United States. According to scholars, JFK referred to as the most important name of theCold War era. He died as a result of assassination. Duringthe JFK period, American foreign policy experienced significant crises. Thecommon point of the doctrines we have examined is that prevent the disseminationof the communism and strengthening of the Soviet Union.
There were a lot of importantinternational events during the Kennedy era but two of them left a significant markon the historical agenda. One of them is Bay of Pig. It’s the unsuccessful attempted invasion of theCubans in the lead of US support in 1961 to destroy the Fidel Castro regime. Inthis case, Kennedy is aimed to defeat communism by providing military supportto rebels. To warn the Castro government: Thosewho make peaceful revolution impossible will make violent revolution inevitable(Alliance for Progress, 13 March 1962).
Used this slogan inhis speech. Actually, the most important event of the JFK period was the CubanMissile Crisis. Thiscrisis began with the placement of nuclear missile rockets to Turkey. TheSoviet Union was very uncomfortable with that. So they took countermeasures. TheSoviet Union did the exact same thing. Fidel Castro allowed the Soviet bloc tobe placed rockets in his country.This Government, as promised, has maintained the closest surveillance of theSoviet Military buildup on the island of Cuba.
Within the past week,unmistakable evidence has established the fact that a series of offensivemissile sites is now in preparation on that imprisoned island. The purpose ofthese bases can be none other than to provide a nuclear strike capabilityagainst the Western Hemisphere (John F. Kennedy 1962).This crisis brought the world almost to the brink of nuclear war.
But this problemresolved quickly because of diplomatic interventions and missiles removed fromboth countries.JohnsonDoctrine:Lyndon Baines Johnson is the 36’th president of the United States ofAmerica. He came to the presidency after the assassination of John F. Kennedy.
Heis the 4’th President of the Cold War era. In 1965 president Johnson declaredthe Johnson Doctrine. According to doctrine. ”United Stateswill take all necessary measures in support of freedom andin defense of peace in Southeast Asia”.
Basically, Johnson Doctrine suggests that The UnitedStates would never again permit the establishment of a Communist regime in theWestern Hemisphere. Whenwe look at the doctrines we have compared up to now, we have never seen adirect intervention of the United States. But with Johnson America’s foreign policyhas become physical. With the Vietnam War, capitalist and imperialist policywere followed. But almost everybody, including the President of the UnitedStates, believed it was a peace process.
Our purpose in Vietnam is to prevent the success ofaggression. It is not conquest, it is not empire, it is not foreign bases, itis not domination. It is, simply put, just to prevent the forceful conquest ofSouth Vietnam by North Vietnam (Lyndon B. Johnson). Nixon Doctrine: