Motivation is to feel inspired or willing to do something. Thenature and focus of motivation differs among people owing to the uniqueattitudes and goals. As an example, a student can be highly motivated to work hardat school out of genuine interest or just because he or she wants praise from ateacher/ parent or simply get good grades etc. Self Determination Theory (SDT)distinguishes between different types of motivation. The most basic difference isbetween intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivationrefers to doing something because it is inherently interesting, enjoyable, satisfyingand personally uplifting and extrinsic motivation refers to doing something becauseof some kind of pressure, it always leads to a separable outcome. Facilitating versus negating Intrinsic Motivation- CognitiveEvaluation Theory (CET) is considered a sub theory of SDT, argues thatinterpersonal outcomes (e.g.
, rewards, communications, and feedback) canenhance intrinsic motivation for that action because they allow satisfaction ofthe basic psychological need for competence and recognition. For example,several studies have shown that autonomy-supportive (in contrast tocontrolling) teachers help students inculcate greater levels of intrinsicmotivation (learning and curiosity). Students that are overly controlled notonly lose initiative but also learn less. Internalization is the process of takingin a regulation, and integration is the process by which individuals more fullytransform the regulation into their own (intrinsic motivation). To facilitate internalization is toprovide a sense of belongingness and connectedness. Another issue is perceivedcompetence.
Students will more likely adopt and internalize a goal if theyunderstand it and have the relevant skills to succeed at it.Within SDT a second sub theory, referred to as OrganismicIntegration Theory (OIT), it details different forms of extrinsic motivationand the contextual factors that either promote or hinder internalization andintegration of the regulation for these behaviors. This model has amotivation,which is the state of lacking an intention or desire to act, it results fromfeeling that task is not important, feeling of incompetence or believing thatperforming the task would not lead to the desired outcome. Also, next to amotivation are various types of motivation thatreflect differing degrees of autonomy or self-determination. The first type, nextto amotivation is External regulation– which symbolizes higher degree of control than self-autonomy. In this peopleare compelled to perform or act just because of the external demand, threats/rewards associated with the outcome. Asecond type of extrinsic motivation is Introjectedregulation , which has an external perceived locus of causality (EPLOC)just like external regulation but is more directed to enhance self-esteem andmaintain personal worth and has ego involvement/ maintaining pride( quitecontrolling as pressure to perform is there).
The third type is through Identification, more autonomous andself-driven. The person has accepted the regulation as its own personalregulation (willingly) and understands the relevance and importance of thebehavior personally than being controlled for outcomes. The final type is intrinsicmotivation – which scores highest on the autonomy. Though the regulations havebeen fully integrated from the inner self, but still elements of extrinsicmotivation are there, as a separable outcome is prevalent in the motivation.