Modern day agriculturerelies heavily on the use of chemical fertilizers.
Synthetic nitrogen use hasincreased 10-fold over the last 40 years, representing worldwide cost of over$20 billion (National Academy of Science. 1996). Cultivation of monocot cropswhich include the grasses and cereals rank high in nitrogen fertilizer usage.In 1995, 37 million tons of nitrogen fertilizer was applied to cerealsworldwide, 85 % of which were used for wheat, rice, maize and Sugarcane (Soh,K. G.
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1997). Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid) is a tall, perennial grass (familyPoaceae, subfamily Panicoide), and is cultivated in tropical and warm-temperateregions between 35°N and 35°S and from sea level to altitudes of 1,000 m in awide variety of soil types (Reis et al 2007).
Sugarcane crop responds well to the nitrogenousfertilizers in terms of their yield and economic produce. Sugarcane being avery exhaustive and extracting crop, removes about 205 kg nitrogen for yieldinga crop of 100 t.ha-1 and for sustaining productivity, nitrogen is replenishedthrough chemical fertilizer @ 340 kg.ha-1 in sugarcane. In 2011, worldproduction of sugarcane was 1,794 million tons (FAO STAT, 2011). which is muchhigher than other major crops such as maize (883 million tons), paddy rice (723million tons), wheat (704 million tons) and potatoes (374 million tons).Sugarcane production is highest in Brazil (734 million tons), followed by India(342 million tons), and China (115 million tons). Sugarcane was cropped over anarea of 25 million hectares all over the world; the average yield was 70.
5 tonsper hectare. It has occupied 40.75 lakh ha. Area in India, while 7.36 lakh ha.In Maharashtra state most of the sugar obtained in the world i.
e. 60% is fromsugarcane (Rajkumar.,B et al 2017). Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) offers apromising alternative in achieving environmentally safe and economical Armingsystems.
Exploiting the use of nitrogen-