MOBILE l “_Toc516575010” 4.3 Mobile Robots Product Outlook

MOBILE ROBOTS FOR SMART FACTORIES&GLOBAL MARKET ANALYSISNihan KELE?MILVUS ROBOTICS TABLE OF CONTENTS TOC o “1-3” h z u HYPERLINK l “_Toc516574994” 1.INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc516574994 h 2 HYPERLINK l “_Toc516574995” 2. MOBILE ROBOTS PAGEREF _Toc516574995 h 2 HYPERLINK l “_Toc516574996” 2.1 Automated Guided Vehicle, AGVs PAGEREF _Toc516574996 h 3 HYPERLINK l “_Toc516574997” 2.2 Autonomous Mobile Robots, AMRs PAGEREF _Toc516574997 h 4 HYPERLINK l “_Toc516574998” 3.

NAVIGATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR MOBILE ROBOTS PAGEREF _Toc516574998 h 6 HYPERLINK l “_Toc516574999” 3.1 Laser Guidance Navigation Systems, LGV PAGEREF _Toc516574999 h 6 HYPERLINK l “_Toc516575000” 3.2 Vision Guidance Navigation Systems, VGV PAGEREF _Toc516575000 h 6 HYPERLINK l “_Toc516575001” 3.

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3 Self Driving Vehicles, SDVs PAGEREF _Toc516575001 h 7 HYPERLINK l “_Toc516575002” 3.4 Magnetic Spot Guidance Technology PAGEREF _Toc516575002 h 7 HYPERLINK l “_Toc516575003” 3.5 Magnetic Tape Guidance Technology PAGEREF _Toc516575003 h 7 HYPERLINK l “_Toc516575004” 3.6 Wire Navigation Systems PAGEREF _Toc516575004 h 7 HYPERLINK l “_Toc516575005” 3.7 Natural Navigation Systems PAGEREF _Toc516575005 h 7 HYPERLINK l “_Toc516575006” 3.

8 Inertial Guidance Systems PAGEREF _Toc516575006 h 8 HYPERLINK l “_Toc516575007” 4. MOBILE ROBOTS MARKET OVERV?EW PAGEREF _Toc516575007 h 8 HYPERLINK l “_Toc516575008” 4.1 Market Value PAGEREF _Toc516575008 h 8 HYPERLINK l “_Toc516575009” 4.2 Market Volume By Region PAGEREF _Toc516575009 h 9 HYPERLINK l “_Toc516575010” 4.

3 Mobile Robots Product Outlook PAGEREF _Toc516575010 h 9 HYPERLINK l “_Toc516575011” 4.4 Mobile Robots End-Use Outlook PAGEREF _Toc516575011 h 9 HYPERLINK l “_Toc516575012” 4.4.1 Robot Usage in Warehousing and Logistics PAGEREF _Toc516575012 h 9 HYPERLINK l “_Toc516575013” 4.5 Key Vendors PAGEREF _Toc516575013 h 10 HYPERLINK l “_Toc516575014” 5. MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENTS MARKET OVERVIEW PAGEREF _Toc516575014 h 10 HYPERLINK l “_Toc516575015” 5.

1 Market Value PAGEREF _Toc516575015 h 10 HYPERLINK l “_Toc516575016” 5.2 Market Volume by region PAGEREF _Toc516575016 h 11 HYPERLINK l “_Toc516575017” 5.3 Material Handling Equipment Product Outlook PAGEREF _Toc516575017 h 12 HYPERLINK l “_Toc516575018” 5.4 Material Handling Equipment End-Use Outlook PAGEREF _Toc516575018 h 12 HYPERLINK l “_Toc516575019” 5.6 Key vendors PAGEREF _Toc516575019 h 12 HYPERLINK l “_Toc516575020” 6.

MILVUS ROBOTICS PAGEREF _Toc516575020 h 13 HYPERLINK l “_Toc516575021” 6.1 SEIT PAGEREF _Toc516575021 h 13 HYPERLINK l “_Toc516575022” 7. CONCLUSION PAGEREF _Toc516575022 h 15 HYPERLINK l “_Toc516575023” 8.REFERENCES PAGEREF _Toc516575023 h 161.INTRODUCTION22. MOBILE ROBOTS22.

1 Automated Guided Vehicle, AGVs32.2 Autonomous Mobile Robots, AMRs53. NAVIGATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR MOBILE ROBOTS63.

1 Laser Guidance Navigation Systems, LGV63.2 Vision Guidance Navigation Systems, VGV73.3 Self Driving Vehicles, SDVs73.4 Magnetic Spot Guidance Technology73.5 Magnetic Tape Guidance Technology73.6 Wire Navigation Systems83.7 Natural Navigation Systems83.8 Inertial Guidance Systems84.

MOBILE ROBOTS MARKET OVERV?EW84.1 Market Value94.2 Market Volume By Region94.

3 Mobile Robots Product Outlook94.4 Mobile Robots End-Use Outlook94.4.1 Robot Usage in Warehousing and Logistics94.5 Key Vendors105.

MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENTS MARKET OVERVIEW115.1 Market Value115.2 Market Volume by region115.3 Material Handling Equipment Product Outlook125.

4 Material Handling Equipment End-Use Outlook135.6 Key vendors136. MILVUS ROBOTICS136.1 SEIT147.

CONCLUSION158.REFERENCES17INTRODUCTIONRobotics technology is a combination of machine, tools and computer applications used for various activities including designing, manufacturing and the other applications of robots and etc. Usage of robotics technology allows consumers to automate processes, increase productivity, enhance quality and reduce human errors. Robotics technology is fundamental used iin a wide range of industmany industriesries including such as manufacturing, healthcare, aerospace, defense, aerospace, automotive and infrastructure. A robot is essentiallybasically a programmable manipulator that is able to execute multiple operations by following programmed paths to accomplish variety of tasks. Today, robot arms comprise a 40 billion dollars industry.

Robot arms can move with great speed and accuracy to perform repetitive tasks such as painting and spot welding etc. Robot arms are more efficient and effective compared to manual labor. Although robot arms provide indispensable opportunities, they suffer from a fundamental disadvantage as they are bolted to a specific position in the assembly line at their shoulder.

Robot arms have limited range of motion that depends on where they are bolted down. The mobility problem of robot arms led to the creation of mobile robots.1 First Automated Guided Vehicle, AGV, was introduced by Barrett Electronics of Northbrook which was simply a tow truck that follows a wire that is embedded into the floor of a warehouse or a factory in 1953. Early model of AGVs were guided using wires and tape, but they are mostly navigated via using lasers nowadays.

Today, AGVs are being challenged by more sophisticated, flexible, and cost-effective technology of Autonomous Mobile Robots (AMRs). The working principle of AMR is similar with AGV. They consistently and predictably transport loads of material to places but AMR requires no physical markers such as magnets, wires or tapes like AGV. In 2016, the total value created by mobile robotics was US$8.58 bn and It is expected to n. Analysts expect it to report a substantial rise at arise between 2017 and 2015, CAGR of 15.

60% between 2017 and 2025, reaching US$30.96 bn by the end of 2025.22. MOBILE ROBOTSA mobile robot is a machine can locomote and do the work of a person on its own. It is capable to move around its environment. It can work automatically or can be controlled by a computer or operator. Mobile Robots offer mobility, a certain level of autonomy and perception.

A mobile robot is a combination of various hardware and software components. Hardware components of mobile robots is composed of locomotion, sensing, reasoning and communication. Locomotion is the study off how the robot moves around its environment. Sensing is the study of how the robot measures properties of itself and its environment. Reasoning focuses on : Hhow the robot maps the measurements into actions.

Communication is the study: How of how the robot communicates with an outside operatör. •Software components of mobile robots is planning in various aspects.Planing in various aspectsA mobile robot consists of a vehicle, host software, wireless communication, user interface, battery/charger. Mobile robots are being used for various processes in warehouses&facilities. Some of the processes they are used for are material flow and transport; distribution, high-density storage&high speed sortation; production and manufacturing support system.In this report, only unmanned ground mobile robots for warehousing&logistic management will be focused.2.

1 Automated Guided Vehicle, AGVsAGV systems are material handling systems featuring automatically controlled, unmanned vehicles. They are typically used where high volumes of repetitive movements of material are required when there is little or no human decision making skill is required to perform the movement.An AGV is directed by a pre-programmed guidance system that varies in complexity based on the function being performed.

 There are different types of navigation systems used for AGV.Most common navigation systems for AGV are LGV and Fixed path systems.LaLaser guided AGVs rely on mounted laser scanners to function accurately. The scanners emit a laser onto a target, then reflects it back. Based on the amount of time it takes the reflection to return, the AGV can determine target distance. It orients itself in relation to its distance from the target.

Fixed path systemsFixed path systems use an embedded wire, magnetic tape or colored paint as a guide for very simple vehicle routes. The AGV is equipped with sensors and frequencies that respond to the wire or tape and allow it to follow a path. These simple systems can be quite accurate and reliable, although they do not allow for the flexibility that some applications may require.AGVs use a wide range of navigations systems such as Free-range navigation systems; Camera guidance navigation systems; Optical guidance naigation systems and Inertial guidance navigation systems.Free-range systems are a more flexible and adaptive option. A free-range system guides the AGV using a computer-based program that communicates with the onboard microprocessor and control system.

This programming translates into controlled and adjustable movement.Camera-guided AGVs use onboard cameras to see their surroundings while performing. These AGVs are most helpful when you require precision navigation through a crowded area or an area short on space.Optical guided AGVs receive guidance from a photosensitive tape that operators adhere to facility floors. To help them know where they are on the track, optical guided AGVs can measure the distance between established stop locations using wheel odometers.Inertial guided AGVs rely on magnets mounted under the floor to get their sense of direction. They determine their location and where they need to move using: a device to sense the magnets, a gyroscope to measure the unit’s heading and a wheel odometer to calculate how far the vehicle has moved.Early models of AGVs were guided using wires and tapes but today AGVs are mostly navigated by using lasers.

These types of vehicles known as laser-guided vehicles(LGVs), that products are moved efficienty throughout the warehouse. AGV replace the maually operated material handling vehicles such as forklift and the labor force who operate the vehicle. Therefore usage of AGV in plants reduceses the money spent on labor and operating;maintenance cost of material handling vehicles. AGV transport materials more effectively and efficiently compare to manual labor. Usage of AGV increases the production in factories and speeds up the logistics processes in facilities.

Due to the need for initial infrastructure AGV may seem like an expensive investment but in the long run it is the best way to reduce costs as it eliminates manual labor. AGV creates a safe work environment and eliminates forklifts accidents. If an obstacle is in front of the AGV, It stops immediately. In conlusion, AGV provides safe, efficient, cost-effective movement of materials.

Figure 2. Global Automated Guided Vehicle Market (2016-2021)Source (

html)AGV helps business to reduce cost;increase production and speed up the processes. These are main drivers of the continous gorwth of AGV sales. There is and upward growth trend in AGV market. The volume of AGVs that are produced is increasing steadily. As a result of the continious growth of in volume, The total value created by AGV was almost USD 2,000 million in 2017 and It is expected to grow furthermore.

32 AGVs have proven their usefulness across different industries including electrical and electronics, automotive, pharmaceuticals, food and beverage, logistics and distribution. 2.2 Autonomous Mobile Robots, AMRsThe rapidly-expanding variety of AMR models can be attributed to recent developments in a few key pieces of technology.-Sensors allow robots to “see” their environment so that they can detect obstacles and navigate in open space. Cameras are one of the most common because they can detect and identify objects.

Other sensors can include GPS and radar.-Mapping technology has enabled new navigation methods that do not require infrastructure, such as magnetic tape on the floor or reflectors on the walls. In the “teach and repeat” method, a person manually navigates the AMR along the desired route to collect a set of a reference image for the robot to build a digital map of the factory; from then on, it can travel the same routes on its own. A more advanced mapping technology is “dynamic path planning”, in which the robot maps the entire facility after people label objects and important areas on the digital map. The AMR can move freely around the facility, choosing the most efficient path.

If one path is blocked, it can turn around and choose another.10Why is AMR superior to AGV?Fixed routes vs. intelligent navigation-AGVs are a familiar fixture in large, fixed installations where there is a need for repetitive, consistent material deliveries, and where large initial cost outlays. To navigate, it needs to be guided by wires, magnetic strips, or sensors, which typically require extensive (and expensive) facility updates to install, during which time production may be disrupted. The AGV has restricted the following these fixed routes, which require additional cost and disruption if changes are needed in the future. The AGV can detect obstacles in front of it, but it is not able to navigate around them, so it simply stops in its tracks until the obstacle is removed.

An AGV has minimal onboard intelligence and can only obey simple programming instructions. -In contrast, the AMR navigates via maps that its software constructs on-site or via pre-loaded facility drawings. This capability can be compared to a car with a GPS and a pre-loaded set of maps. When it is taught the owner’s home and work address, it generates the most direct path based on simple positions on the map. This is similar to the way the AMR is taught locations to pick up and drop of parts.

The AMR uses data from cameras and built-in sensors and laser scanners as well as sophisticated software that enables it to detect its surroundings and choose the most efficient route to the target. It works completely autonomously and if forklifts, pallets, people, or other obstacles occur in front of it, the AMR will safely maneuver around them, using the best alternative route. This optimizes productivity by ensuring that material flow stays on schedule.

 Few applications vs. high flexibility-AGVs are limited to following a strict route that is integrated into the facility–typically installed in the floor. That means applications are limited and an AGV perform the same delivery task throughout its service life. Changes are simply too expensive and disruptive to be cost-effective.-The AMR only needs simple software adjustments to change its missions, however, so the same robot can perform a variety of different tasks at different locations, automatically making adjustments to meet changing environments and production requirements. AMR tasks can be controlled via the robot’s interface or configurated by fleet control software for multiple robots that automatically prioritizes orders and the robot that is best-suited for a given task based on position and availability. Once a mission is established, employees do not have to spend time coordinating the robots’ work, which allows them to focus on high-value work that contributes to company success.Expensive vs.

cost-effectiveAlthough an AMR consists of much more advanced technology than an AGV, it is typically a less-expensive solution. An AMR does not need wires, magnetic stripes, or other costly modifications to the building infrastructure so it is faster and less expensive to get AMRs up and running, and with no costly disruption to production in the process. Because AMRs can be deployed quickly and easily, they add new efficiencies almost immediately. With low initial costs and fast optimization of processes, they offer remarkably fast return on investment–often in less than six months. As businesses grow, AMRs implementation can expand simultaneously with minimal additional costs.

4Autonomous mobile robots are superior to AGVs in terms of flexibility, cost-effectiveness, return on investment and productivity optimization.3. NAVIGATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR MOBILE ROBOTSThere are several forms of Navigation/Guidance Technology available today. The most popular forms of navigation technologies are laser, spot, magnetic tape, natural/feature, and wire.3.1 Laser Guidance Navigation Systems, LGVLaser technology enhances mobile robots’ functionality by allowing the vehicles to operate in a warehouse without the need for invasive physical barriers. Laser guided vehicles are the most popular method of the AGV navigation.How does it work?• Reflective targets are mounted throughout the facility at known positions• A laser scanner is mounted on top of the vehicle• The laser scanner strobes for reflective targets                             • The vehicle control algorithms calculate the exact vehicle position via triangulationAdditionally, the reference points are easily scalable by simply moving reflectors to different locations as needed.

Laser guided AGVs offer a more innovative method of controlling AGV workflows than more traditional solutions.3.2 Vision Guidance Navigation Systems, VGVVision Guided Vehicles (VGV) navigate their way through a warehouse without any need for a static barrier or infrastructure modification, such as magnets or reflectors.

Instead, vision technology allows VGVs to build a three-dimensional map through a series of images taken when an operator tours the vehicle through the warehouse.Once a map is created, VGVs are ready to go to work transporting goods around the facility. The vehicles follow safety rules of the warehouse and can easily integrate with other operations.

When workflow changes arise, VGVs are flexible to any adjustments required.3.3 Self Driving Vehicles, SDVsA Self Driving Vehicle (SDV) utilizes laser-based perception and artificial intelligence to dynamically move through facilities, infrastructure-free. SDVs combine the benefits of manual labor, conveyors, and AGVs to provide the most advanced method of material transport available today.3.

4 Magnetic Spot Guidance TechnologyHow does it work?•Guide path is marked with magnetic pucks that are placed on or in the floor•Guide path sensor is mounted on the vehicle•Paths are open, the systems guide path can be changed•Extensive layouts can complicate the layout of magnetic pucks•Depending on the accuracy of the magnetic sensor, calibration of the position may be required for different vehicles•System can be expanded without damage or major alteration to the facility 3.5 Magnetic Tape Guidance TechnologyHow does it work?•Guide path is marked with a magnetic tape that is placed on the floor surface•Guide path sensor is mounted on the vehicle•Paths are continuous•Paths are fixed, the systems guide path can be changed easily and quickly•Tape may have to be epoxy coated to floor•Recommended for Automatic Guided Carts (AGC) 3.6 Wire Navigation SystemsHow does it work?•Floor is cut and a wire is embedded to represent the guide path•Guide path sensor is mounted on the vehicle•Paths are well marked on the floor•Paths are continuous•Paths are fixed, the systems guide path is not easily changed 3.7 Natural Navigation SystemsHow does it work?•Area is mapped and stored in the vehicle’s computer memory•Use of existing environment scanned by laser bumpers, with the aid of a few fixed reference points•Guide path is easily changed and expanded•Most flexible for vehicle movement•System can be expanded without alteration to the facility•Dynamic control of blocking and traffic management•Ideal for environments that can change frequently, but not significantly•Short installation times, reducing costs and minimizing the effect on operations3.8 Inertial Guidance SystemsTransporters are embedded in the floor of the work environment.

Then the AGV employs these transporters to detect the correctness of its route and a gyroscope measure the change in the direction of the vehicle. This change(error) is used to correct the vehicle’s motion and return it on the path. 516Figure 3. Navigation systems.

Source( MOBILE ROBOTS MARKET OVERVI?EWThe global market of mobile robotics demonstrates a significant progress in terms of size and valuation due to the escalating needs for industrial mobile robots to enhance workplace efficiency. These mobile robots have the ability to move inside the factories without modifying the factory layout and they can also re-plan their routes autonomously to avoid obstacles. These capabilities make them highly effective in the factory setup. Therefore, companies are prompted to deploy mobile robots in their plants, that is the main driver of the sales of mobile robots.

Over the coming years, the significant increase in labor costs, aging workforce, and the rising demand for productivity are expected to drive the growth of the global market for mobile robotics remarkably. However, the high initial investment may limit the uptake of these robots, which may impact the overall market negatively in the near future.4.1 Market ValueIn 2016, the total opportunity in the global mobile robotics market was US$8.58 bn. Analysts expect it to report a substantial rise at a CAGR of 15.60% between 2017 and 2025, reaching US$30.96 bn by the end of 2025.

634.2 Market Volume By RegionGeographically, the worldwide market for mobile robotics is categorized into Latin America, North America, Asia Pacific, Europe, and the Middle East and Africa. With a share of 32.20%, Asia Pacific dominated the global market in 2016.74 Europe is also a growing market for mobile robots because of the lack of sufficient labor force and high labor costs.4.

3 Mobile Robots Product OutlookToday AGVs and AMRs are the most widely used mobile robots for warehousing;logistics.4.4 Mobile Robots End-Use OutlookMobile robots are being used in various sectors such as Industrial ; Manufacturing; Aerospace; Defence; Logistics ; Warehouse; Medical ; Healthcare; Food;Beverage etc. 854.4.1 Robot Usage in Warehousing and LogisticsIn the modern world’s fast-paced, customer-driven economy, the warehousing and logistics industries are looking for robotics solutions, more than ever before, to remain globally competitive.  While robotics technology has already made an economic impact on the manufacturing sector, it is currently starting to transform supply chain operations to be faster, safer, and more productive.

  The demand for robots and the supply of matured robotic solutions for the optimization of logistics processes have created a tipping point that, according to a new report from Tractica, could lead to widespread acceptance and presence of robots in warehouses and logistics operations. Tractica forecasts that worldwide warehousing and logistics robot unit shipments will increase from 40,000 in 2016 to 620,000 units annually by 2021.  The market intelligence firm estimates that global market revenue for the sector reached $1.9 billion in 2016 and anticipates that the market will continue to grow rapidly over the next several years, reaching a market value of $22.4 billion by the end of 2021. 96Figure 3. Warehousing and Logistics Robots Revenue and Shipments,World Markets: 2016-2021(https://www.tractica.

com/newsroom/press-releases/warehousing-and-logistics-robot-shipments-will-reach-620000-units-annually-by-2021/)4.5 Key VendorsThe AMR market consists of both local and global vendors. The market is competitive and the growth of the market will intensify the level of competition among the market players.The leading vendors in the market are:General Atomics Aeronautical SystemsMobile Industrial RobotsAviation Industry Corporation of China,SMP RoboticsAethonSwisslogClearpath RoboticsThe other prominent vendors in the market are The Hi-Tech Robotic Systemz, WM Robots, Kongsberg Maritime, and Airware. 107 5. MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENTS MARKET OVERVIEWMaterial handling equipment is a field involing the transportation, storage and control of goods and products throughtout rthe processes of manufacturing, distribution, consumption and disposal of all related materials.Manual labor is the most flexible method of material handling available today. It can be challenging to hire and retain workers, but carts and fork trucks are simple and proven.

Conveyors are a highly efficient and productive means of transporting high volumes of goods between manufacturing stations and production lines.The demand for forklift or forklift truck, also known as lift truck or folk truck is increasing on account of its extensive use for lifting and moving materials from one place to another in warehouse and manufacturing operations. The use of a forklift for material handling for short and medium distance is the main factor behind its accelerated demand from the auto industry, retail, brick or stone distribution, manufacturing, heavy-duty warehousing, paper ruling, and shipping and freight industries.5.1 Market ValueThe global material handling equipment market is anticipated to witness a high growth over the years due to the rise in manufacturing activities in the automotive, pharmaceutical, chemical, and food & beverage industries is projected to spur demand. The global material handling equipment market is expected to reach USD 41.1 billion by 2025.11 85.

2 Market Volume by region579050104676200Market volume of material handling equipments have an upward growth and the market is divided into 3 regions: Asia, Europe and North America. According to the 2017 data, Asia increased its volume by 10% over the years and become the world’s leading suppiliers for material handling equipments by passing Europe.129Figure 5.1. World Material Handling Equipment Market Volume by Region (Juncheinrich Investor Relations Presentation)Source:https://www.–data.pdfFigure 5.2. Market volume* of material handling equipment between 2011 and 2017, by region (in 1,000 units)Source https://www. Material Handling Equipment Product Outlook28943301340600There is a wide range of vehicles for handling materials such as industrial trucks, forklifts, conveyors etc. According to Figure 6., Vehicles which are used for warehousing;Logistics Management have the highest volume and in all regions. There is a trend towards increasing thevolume of warehouising equipment compare to other types of vehicles.

139Figure 6. Breakdown of Volume of Material Handling Equipment by Product SegmentSource:–data.pdf5.

4 Material Handling Equipment End-Use OutlookThe global material handling equipment market is segmented into various industries such as Aerospace, Agriculture, Automotive, Building and Construction, Electrical & Electronic Equipment, Food & Beverages, Chemical, E-commerce, Shipping Industry, Warehousing, and others. 1405.6 Key vendorsGlobal material handling equipment market has key players mainly from North America, Western Europe, APAC. The key vendors of the market are Toyota Industries Corporation, KION Group AG, Jungheinrich AG, Hyster-Yale Materials Handling Inc.

151 Additional vendors that are worth to mention are Liebherr Group, Viastore Systems GmbH, WITRON Logistik + Informatik GmbH, Eisenmann AG, Beumer Maschinenfabrik GmbH, Jervis B. Webb Company, Columbus McKinnon Corporation, Crown Equipment CorporationHytrol Conveyor Co., Inc., Manitowoc Company, Inc., Xuzhou Heavy Machinery Co., Ltd. And.162 Figure 7.

Material Handling Equipment Market World LeadersSource: MILVUS ROBOTICSMilvus Robotics is a Ankara based company which was Founded in 2011. Milvus Robotics is one of the leading developers and producers of industrial robotics. Milvus Robotics offers a wide range of high quality, advanced robotics systems for the manufacturing, marketing and research industries.13 Milvus Robotics offers two products for handling materials in warehouses and factories: SEIT100 and SEIT500.

6.1 SEITSEIT moves around autonomously, by means of sensory capabilities. Seit’s navigation requires no physical markers such as magnets, wires or tapes. It eliminates the high cost of initial infrastructure. SEIT easily adapt to new work flows as It integrate into existing infrastructure requiring no expensive changes in the facility. 14Figure 8.

SEIT 100Source: is designed to move around by using natural navigation systems.-Natural feature navigation systems• Reference images of the operating area are recorded and stored in the vehicle’s memory• A camera or laser can be used to record features during setup and sense features during navigation • Vehicle’s actual position is calculated based on its relative position compared to those natural features Figure *** Natural navigation systemsSource (https://www.transbotics.

com/learning-center/guidance-navigation)Benefits: The Value of SEIT• SEIT allows you to navigate throughout the facility or your warehouse, without having to commit any of your resources on infrastructure. This means, there will be no interruption to your operation and no physical changes to your facility. Furthermore, the lack of fixed infrastructure provides an initial savings and It eliminates the future infrastructure costs as if the production lines change.• SEIT guarantees to deliver materials efficiently and steadily through reorganizing the movement around the facility.• SEIT works completely autonomously and requires minimal human interaction. SEIT helps businesses to redistribute the current workforce within value-creating roles if desired. • SEIT is designed to withstand heavy loads and It is capable of carrying loads up to 500 kg, SEIT is built compatible with industry standards.

Therefore SEIT is extremely durable and reduces maintenance costs drastically.• SEIT’s proactive sensing capabilities reduce the possibility of accidents and injuries as it safely maneuver around obstacles by using the most optimal way if forklifts, pallets, people, or other obstacles occur in front of it. SEIT is compatible with recent international safety standards. 1757. CONCLUSIONManual labor is still the most flexible and available method of material handling especially for some regions where the labor force is considerably cheap. Even though, it can be challenging to hire and retain workers, carts and fork trucks are simple and functional. Modern manufacturing environments can no longer be dependent on costly, inflexible technologies.

It is because hiring labor force causes higher cost in long term. Additionally the operating and maintenance cost of traditional material equipment such as forklifs and conveyors is consideraly high compare to the the operating and maintenance cost of AMR. Businesses can not afford to continue using forklifts and other material handling vehicles to transport materials around the facility, especially in today’s tight labor market. 8.REFERENCES1. Siegwart, R., & Nourbakhsh, I. R.

(2004). Introduction to autonomous mobile robots. Cambridge: MIT Press.2.

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com/reports/material-handling-equipment-market14. HYPERLINK “” http://milvusrobotics.

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