IntroductionApproximately, 7million deaths worldwide every year are caused by the major disease, cancer.
80%of cancer deaths are due to the most lethal cancers which are lung, breast,prostate colorectal and pancreas cancer. 35% of cancer deaths is predicted dueto the dietary patterns, foods, nutritional intake and other dietary essential (Joseet al, 2014). Various researches was made specifically about breast cancer andit is diet related (Dhanamani, SL Devi, S Kannan, 2011)Despite our advancedtechnology, various tumors becoming more resistant and demanding new approachesto control it (Oriana Marques et al., 2014).
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One of the most typically-used fortreatment in breast cancer is chemotherapy. However, there is a detrimentalside effect from this therapy, from nausea to bone marrow failure and evolutionof multidrug resistance (MDR). Thus, a different cancer treatment should befound from natural compounds from plants (P Graidist, M Martla and Y Sukpondma,2015). BodyContentBreast cancer is thenumber one common lethal disease among women around the world.
Almost 70% ofwomen that diagnosed with breast cancer develop metastasis and die, meanwhile10% women already have metastases before being diagnosed. However, percentageof survival women with breast cancer have increased due to early diagnostic(Mohan and Ponnusankar, 2013).Early detaileddiagnosis, tumor molecular subtyping and staging of tumor-node-metastasis areimportant to enhance the treatment.
It has the potential to heal the cancer butonce it becoming metastatic, it was incurable (Debald et al., 2013; Mohan andPonnusankar, 2013).Plants are founded tobe a great source for a diverse of phytochemicals.
The isolated compunds fromherbs have been used in traditional medicine in Asian countries for almost athousand years. Unfortunately, there is certain restriction on their usage.Plant polyphenols are good anti-cancer agents. It plays an important role toprotect the normal cells from the adverse side effects from chemotherapy.Besides, it can boost up the cytotoxic activity of chemotherapeutic agents incancer cells. Therefore, plant polyphenols with an anti-neoplastic agent maygive a more suitable solution for cancer treatment. However, certaincombinations might against each other thereby invalidate their positive effectswhich lead to unwanted toxic effects (Aarti Mohan et al.
, 2013).Research on more than13,000 has been done in last 5 years. World Health Organization (WHO) describemedicinal plants as a herbal preparation that is produced by proposing plant’ssubstances into numerous process such are extraction, purification,concentration, fractionation and biological or physical process for base forherbal product. More than 400,000 species of tropical flowering plants havebeen recognized as medicinal plants.
Hence, traditional plants are way cheaperthan modern medicine (S Manoharan and J Kaur, 2013).Mimosapudica comes from taxonomic group Magnoliopsida and familyMimosaseae. It is called as Mimosa pudicaLinn in Latin (B Joseph, J George and J Mohan, 2013).
It was first proposedby Carl Linnaeus in Species Plantarum in 1753 (B Joseph, J George and J Mohan,2013). The plant is short prickly branches. It flowers has rounded head,axillary and lilac pink in colour. The stem is upright, thin, spiky andwell-branched. Moreover, the length of pod is 1.
5 to 2.5 cm long (B Joseph, JGeorge and J Mohan). It height is about 1 metre. Both pinnae and their leafletsare folded when touched as they are very sensitive (J Jose et al., 2016). Itconsists of alkaloid, glycoside, flavonoids and tannins (Jose et al., 2014).
According to the previous research, a large amount of flavonoids and phenoliccompounds are gathered by extracting the Mimosapudica. Based on studies, flavonoids have the functions of anti-tumoractivities (Y Li et al., 2011).Flavonoids are group ofmore than 4,000 polyphenolic compunds that exist spontaneously in food fromorigin plant. It is classified into flavanols, flavones, flavanones,isoflavones, catechins, anthocyanidins and chalcones. The flavonoids have agood effect on human health and therefore become interest because of theirpotential (Jose et al., 2014).
Flavannoidsare recorded to have dominant antioxidants activities. It helps to lessenoxidative stress that linked to cancer. Moreover, it also inhibit the activationof pro-carcinogens, proliferation of cell cancer, metastasis and angiogenesisand activation of immune response against cell cancer. Earlier study reportedthat the anti-cancer activity of flavannoids that is isolated from mimosa pudica are against human breastcancer cell (MCF-7) (J Jose et al., 2016).Elucidating its pointof intervention in cancer cell cycle is an anticancer mechanism of flavonoids. Itfunctions as bactericidal and bacteriostatic by destroying cytoplasmicmembrane, inhibit energy metabolism and restrain synthesis of nucleic acidsagainst different organism (A Ahmad et al.
, 2015). Another studies haveproven that some flavonoids preventing the growth of cancer cell lines. Theantiestrogenic properties of different flavonoids can relate to theanti-proliferative consequence in estrogen that depends on tumor cells. Flavonoidshave been proclaimed to affect cell signaling and the evolution of cell cyclein some in vitro research. For instance, inhibitory effect of tea flavonoids onsignal transduction pathways. It interfered by epidermal growth and otherfactor which is platelet derived growth. Therefore, it will affects favorablydownstream events such as angiogenesis.
In cell proliferation process, proteintyrosine kinase will be inhibited by quercetin and genistein. Apoptatic bodyand cell cycle will be arrested by p53-dependent mechanism (Ahmad A. et al.,2015).Nitrogen mustards arethe first drug that were first developed and used for chemotherapy. A largenumber of anti-cancer agents were identified afterwards.
Chemotherapeuticagents have the potential to cause over 80% remission but they have adetrimental effects. For example, nausea, fever, vomiting, fatigue andanorexia. On the other hand, flavonoids contain several desirable propertiessuch as anti-inflammatory, chemotherapeutic, chemopreventive, antioxidant, multi-drugresistance, cardioprotective and neuroprotective properties.
Hence, it can bemade use of for cancer chemotherapy (Aarti Mohan et al., 2013).