Metacognition is significant in theworld of athletics because it allows people to exert control over theirthinking and learning processes and, therefore, achieve mastery by discerningareas for improvement and coaching themselves during performance. Patricia J.Babbs and Alden J. Moe report in “Metacognition: A Key for IndependentLearning from Text” that students learning to read follow these steps whenpracticing metacognition: “1. Think about thinking.
2. Know the crucial goal. 3. Planways to accomplish that goal. 4. Check to see whether the goal is met.
5. Takeaction when the goal is not met.”1 Athletes can apply the same methods whenevaluating their own performance. As they engage in self-regulatory behaviors,they take the time to refine their thinking and can thereby increase theirconfidence in their ability to achieve their goals. Metacognition therebyempowers athletes to take control of their own performance and claim ownershipof their successes. There are however, limitations to usage of metacognition. In 2012, Kanesa D. Seraphinidentified certain trouble that students had with metacognition.
“The mostdifficult part of this lesson was getting students to think about theirthinking. It was difficult to explain as there is SO much to it–just like itwas for us when we learned it…so I felt their pain, but I also know that asthey get familiar with it, it will become easier.”2 This is a quote from a teacher working in aschool where Seraphin conducted her research. It indicates that not everyone iscapable of “thinking about thinking”.
The reason for this, according toSeraphin was that students relied too much on the guidance from the teacherinstead of being able to recognize and categorize their thoughts and actions.3 This backs up my point about more eliteathletes being able to develop stronger metacognitive skills. Even thougheducation and sport are not related, I believe the principles of metacognitionwork similarly in both areas. However, there is still an argument concerningthis statement. Claus and Geedey (2010) have conducted a test, which concludedthat there is no correlation between the Bloom level (the ability ofself-assessment) and success and variation between exam scores. Students whowere taking part in the experiment did equally well in easy and difficult partsbut showed weaknesses in the mediocre part.4Word count: 938 Stages ofMetacognition Metacognitionis believed by some scientists to be divided into two separate areas (stages):Cognitive knowledge and cognitive regulation.
5 Most scientists agree thatmetacognition consists of several stages of critical thinking and reflection,which include forward planning, self-monitoring evaluation, and reflection.6 Although the degreeof the success of metacognition varies among athletes according to gender,sport type, and individual and team endeavors, these consistent stagesestablish a baseline for understanding the internal processes of metacognition.Forward planning demands that an athlete recognize the demands of a task/skillbefore the attempt. An athlete demonstrates self-monitoring through his or herawareness of their actions and thought process while attempting theperformance.
Effort measures the extent to which the athlete applies his or hertraining to the event; it reflects how hard he or she is willing to work toachieve the goal. Self-efficacy is the athlete’s judgment of his or her ownability to attempt and complete the task. By evaluating his or her performance,the athlete finally can reflect on the event, assess his or her process andunderstand the outcomes of the event in terms of his or her effort and training1 Patricia J.
Babbs and Alden J. Moe p.425 2 Kanesa D. Seraphin (2012) 3 Kanesa D.
Seraphin (2012) 4 Claus and Geedey, p. 21 5 Emily R. Lai6 Emily R.