MATERIALS data and information and its analysis as

MATERIALS
AND METHODOLOGY

Sociology is a behavioral
description of human being in various social set ups. Methodology can be
defined as the scientific methods or procedures used for the collection of the
data and information and its analysis as well as its interpretations.(Young, 1949)
social research is the systematic way of determining new fact, or confirming
old facts ,their sequence, interrelationship, causal explanations and the
natural laws which govern them. Social research is concerned with exploring,
describing and explaining social phenomena involving human behavior (Abu Jafar et
al., 1998).

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Merton (1958) stated “methodology is
the logic of scientific procedures and sociologist in company with all others
who conduct scientific works must be aware of the design of investigation the
nature of inference and the requirement of the theoretical system”

Methodological techniques of data
collection and analyzing the observations play a significant role in research.

 

 Research design

It is the process of collecting,
analyzing, and interpreting the data. It enables a researcher to draw
inferences, concerning causal relationship among the variables under
investigation.

Research design also determines the
domain of generalization (Nachmias and Nachmias, 1992).

It gives the study design, selection
criteria for respondents, sampling procedures, sample size and different
statistical techniques used for data analysis.

The present study employed
quantitative approach. The study was conducted in three universities of
district Faisalabad.

 

 Conceptualization and Operationalization
of the key variable

 

Conceptualization means to form a
concept; think in concepts. Conceptualization is a mental process whereby
ambiguous imprecise statements are made clear. (MWO Dictionary 2007).

Conceptualization
is basically used in research for the application of certain scientific
terminologies with a view to clearly communicate the intended outcomes of the
study. The
need for the conceptualization and defining the general concept with specific
and purified components is important. Magill (1995) ordinarily, concepts are
defined theoretically.

Operationalizing
a variable is essence of a research. It means finding a measurable,
quantifiable, and valid index for independent and dependent variables, and
(sometimes) finding a way to manipulate that variable in such a way as to have
two or more levels.

 In
a theoretical definition, a concept appears in abstract terms to give the
general meanings.

 Here Conceptualization is to convey some of
the concept used in the present study is as under:

 

 Variables

Ø Independent
variable

In the
following research ?Social Networking Sites (Facebook, Twitter, Whatsapp,
Instagram, Viber, Google++, Skype, Youtube, Yahoo)? are the independent
variable.

 

Ø Dependent
variable

In the
following research ? Youth (students)? is dependent variable.

 

Ø background
variable

§ Age

§ Gender

§ Education

§ Occupation/Employment Status

§ Family Structure

 

Age:

It as
characterized as aggregate quantitites of years finished by respondent since
their introduction to te world. The age was arranged as:

18-22

23-27

27 above

 

Gender:

The physiological
contrast amongst men and women is called sex or gender.

Male

Female

 

Education:

It is
consider as one of the imperative components for variety in learning, state of
mind and distinction. In the present examination training remains for formal
instruction obtained through formal instructive organizations.

 

B.A/B.S
Honor

M.A

M.S/M.Phil

PHD

 

Income:

 

Occupation
is considered as

 

Universe

Dixon and
Marry (1957) says, Any set of individuals or objects having common observable
characteristics constitute a population or universe.”

The
present study was conducted out in District Faisalabad, It is the third largest
metropolis in Pakistan, the second largest in the province of Punjab, and a
major industrial center in the heart of Pakistan. It is also known as the
Manchester of Pakistan. The city-district of Faisalabad is bound on the north
by

the
districts of Hafizabad and Chiniot, on the east by Nankana Sahib, on the
South-East by Okara, on the South Sahiwal & Toba Tek Singh, and on the west
by Jhang.

 

Through
MULTI STAGE SAMPLING the researcher was chose three government universities
from the District Faisalabad;

 

 

 

2.
University of Agriculture Faisalabad.(UAF)

 

3.
Government College university Faisalabad.(GCUF)

 

The
researcher collected 300 questioners from GCUWF, UAF and GCUF  from young students age (18-28).

 

 Sample

A sample
refers to a small representative of the universe (Goods and Hatt,1952)

According
to Staydom, Fouche and Delport (2005), sampling means taking any portion of a
population or universe as representative of that population.

It is
economical in financial and time consuming senses. Large sample enable
researcher to draw more representativeness and accurate conclusions and to make
more accurate predictions than in smaller samples.

To make
research work more manageable, cost effecting and time efficient Sampling is
must.

There are
two basic requirements for a good sampling procedure. Sample must be representative
and Sample must be adequate.

 

 Sampling technique

 

 Multistage
random sampling technique is used for current study, as it is an
appropriate technique for drawing sample from large population with limited
time and cost.

According
to this technique sampling is done in two or more stages. The nature of
sampling units change from one unit to another and final stage provides the
required sampling units (units of analysis).

District
Faisalabad consists of four universities. For sampling researcher selected 3
universities.

 Agriculture University Faisalabad (UAF),
Government College University Faisalabad (GCUF) 
and Govt college for women university(gcuwf) were selected.

 

The
Agriculture University Faisalabad has 17000 young students (age 19-24) ,
Government College University has 27000 young students (age 19-24) and
Government college for women university has….. students.(age 19-24) From  these cluster the researcher collected 300
questioner.

 

Sample size

The sample
of present study consists of 300 respondents. 150 male students and 150 female
students. Three universities of dist Faisalabad were under studied. From each
university 100 respondents (50 male students, 50 female students) were
selected.

 

Data collection

The
purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of Social media usage on
university students, and how the social media and social networking sites
effect their academic performance.

Interview
schedule (a set of questioners) was developed for collection of data.

 

Technique for data collection

?It is the
set of question asked and filled by the interviews?. It refers to the question
formulated according to the requirements and relevance of the research
objectives. Interview survey conducted by personal interviews has some
advantages over the tools of the data

collection.
The personal interview can be regarded as a face to face interpersonal role in
situation in which an interviewer asks respondent questions designed to
obtained answers pertain to the research hypothesis. The questions, their
working and their sequence define the extent to which interviews are structured
( Nachmias & Nachmais, 1998). It has greater flexibility and responsibility
of repeating or rephrasing questions to probe the desired information. For the
present study the interview schedule was developed. The interviews

were
conducted by the researcher by himself.

 

Pre- testing and reliability test

 

Before
actual data collection, interview schedule was pre-tested to examine the work
ability and to ensure the validity of the interview schedule. Pre-Testing was
done by interviewing two respondents from each university. The results revealed
certain shortcomings in the instrument so the researcher made modification
before finalizing it. To test the reliability of the instrument, Cronbach’ Alpha approach was applied. This method
of testing the reliability is commonly used when study of knowledge, attitude
and practice is conducted.

 

Data Editing

 

Interviewing
schedule was checked and edited by the Researcher on the same day at the end of
the interview, to see the completeness, accuracy, and uniformity. The
researcher carried out the cleaning process for the data by checking against
the coding sheet or the original interviewing schedule in order to clean the
data from illegal codes, inconsistencies and improbabilities through computer
editing. When it was ensured that the data were cleaned and free of errors, it
was stored on a hard disk as well as on the USB for further analysis.

 

Coding and Data entry

 

Each
interview schedule was checked by the researcher for possible errors and
missing entries. Variables and their categories were coded for purpose of
analysis. After editing and coding, data were entered in the SPSS version-20.
The statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) is computer software
designed for analyzing the data regarding social sciences.

Various
statistical methods can be carried out by using this software. It also assists
the researcher to recode variables and compute new variables.

 

 Analysis of the data

The data
was collected, arranged and organized. This data was feeded into the computer.
The results were analyzed with the help of computer and would be interpreted.

 

PERCENTAGE:

                 PERCENTAGE have been utilized
for making comparison of various responses.

The
percentage will be worked out by using the following formula:

 

              F

p  =  
________   X  100

               N

 

P =
Percentage

F =
Frequency

N = Total
Number

 

 

Graphical representation

Results
were showed in graphic representation, for this purpose bar graphics and pie
charts were constructed.

 

Data Analysis 
(Uni-variant analysis)

 

The
information was classified into meaningful categories by

developing
frequency distribution tables. because at initial stages of data analysis data
must be described the facts easily and understandable. Average and percentages
were calculated for better understanding of facts and figures.

 

Frequency distribution

 

A
frequency distribution of a single variable, sometimes referred to as a
uni-variant frequency distribution, is the frequency of observations in each
category of a variable.

Now The
first task is to construct frequency distributions to examine the pattern of
the responses to each of the independent and dependent variables under
investigation.

A
frequency distribution of a single variable, sometimes referred to as a
uni-variant frequency distribution. It is the frequency of observations in each
category of a variable.

To
construct a frequency distribution, the researcher simply lists the categories
of the variable and counts the number of observations in each. It gives the
standard form of a univariant frequency distribution.

 

 Bivariate analysis

 

Bivariate
analysis is used to develop the relation between the two variables. It also
indicates direction of relation or association between the variables.

 

Brief
description of statistical methods used in bivariate analysis.

 

Chi-square distribution

 

 Chi square is a common measure of
significance; it tests the hypothesis that there is no relationship between the
columns and rows in a

contingency
table. Chi square is reported as both a number and a probability; if the
probability is higher than about .05, it generally means that we cannot reject
the hypothesis that the two variables are unrelated (ISPSR2010).

Chi square
test was applied to examine relationship between independent and dependent
variables. X2 was computed by following formula:

If the
calculated value of chi square was equal to or higher than the table value at
0.05 level of probability at the given degree of freedom, the relationship was
statistically significant. If it is less than the table value (0.01 level of
probability) it is termed as highly significant.

Where the
calculated value is less than the table value at 0.05 level of significance it
is declared as non-significant. The data is statistically analyzed on (PC)
using SPSS software.

 

Calculations
were made by using following formula:

 

                                   X  = 

 

Where:

 

   O  =
observed frequency

   E  
=  Expected frequency

        = 
Sum of observations

 

Gamma statistics

 

To check
the direction and magnitude of relationship between independent and dependent
variables gamma statistics was used. Calculations were made by using the
following

 

formula:

 

             Ns – Nd

        ___________

         

              Ns + Nd

 

Ns   = 
same order pair

Nd   = 
different order pair

 

 Field experience

 

In a
personal interview which involves one person with another and where question
and answer goes, there is a great need to win a respondent’s confidence. So
that they give free and frank opinion on the questions asked in the questioner.
The researcher took full care and utilized her best efforts to create a
friendly atmosphere. There were many difficulties faced by the researcher
during the collection of data. Some time students refused to fill the

questioner but most of youth cooperated with her.

MATERIALS
AND METHODOLOGY

Sociology is a behavioral
description of human being in various social set ups. Methodology can be
defined as the scientific methods or procedures used for the collection of the
data and information and its analysis as well as its interpretations.(Young, 1949)
social research is the systematic way of determining new fact, or confirming
old facts ,their sequence, interrelationship, causal explanations and the
natural laws which govern them. Social research is concerned with exploring,
describing and explaining social phenomena involving human behavior (Abu Jafar et
al., 1998).

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Merton (1958) stated “methodology is
the logic of scientific procedures and sociologist in company with all others
who conduct scientific works must be aware of the design of investigation the
nature of inference and the requirement of the theoretical system”

Methodological techniques of data
collection and analyzing the observations play a significant role in research.

 

 Research design

It is the process of collecting,
analyzing, and interpreting the data. It enables a researcher to draw
inferences, concerning causal relationship among the variables under
investigation.

Research design also determines the
domain of generalization (Nachmias and Nachmias, 1992).

It gives the study design, selection
criteria for respondents, sampling procedures, sample size and different
statistical techniques used for data analysis.

The present study employed
quantitative approach. The study was conducted in three universities of
district Faisalabad.

 

 Conceptualization and Operationalization
of the key variable

 

Conceptualization means to form a
concept; think in concepts. Conceptualization is a mental process whereby
ambiguous imprecise statements are made clear. (MWO Dictionary 2007).

Conceptualization
is basically used in research for the application of certain scientific
terminologies with a view to clearly communicate the intended outcomes of the
study. The
need for the conceptualization and defining the general concept with specific
and purified components is important. Magill (1995) ordinarily, concepts are
defined theoretically.

Operationalizing
a variable is essence of a research. It means finding a measurable,
quantifiable, and valid index for independent and dependent variables, and
(sometimes) finding a way to manipulate that variable in such a way as to have
two or more levels.

 In
a theoretical definition, a concept appears in abstract terms to give the
general meanings.

 Here Conceptualization is to convey some of
the concept used in the present study is as under:

 

 Variables

Ø Independent
variable

In the
following research ?Social Networking Sites (Facebook, Twitter, Whatsapp,
Instagram, Viber, Google++, Skype, Youtube, Yahoo)? are the independent
variable.

 

Ø Dependent
variable

In the
following research ? Youth (students)? is dependent variable.

 

Ø background
variable

§ Age

§ Gender

§ Education

§ Occupation/Employment Status

§ Family Structure

 

Age:

It as
characterized as aggregate quantitites of years finished by respondent since
their introduction to te world. The age was arranged as:

18-22

23-27

27 above

 

Gender:

The physiological
contrast amongst men and women is called sex or gender.

Male

Female

 

Education:

It is
consider as one of the imperative components for variety in learning, state of
mind and distinction. In the present examination training remains for formal
instruction obtained through formal instructive organizations.

 

B.A/B.S
Honor

M.A

M.S/M.Phil

PHD

 

Income:

 

Occupation
is considered as

 

Universe

Dixon and
Marry (1957) says, Any set of individuals or objects having common observable
characteristics constitute a population or universe.”

The
present study was conducted out in District Faisalabad, It is the third largest
metropolis in Pakistan, the second largest in the province of Punjab, and a
major industrial center in the heart of Pakistan. It is also known as the
Manchester of Pakistan. The city-district of Faisalabad is bound on the north
by

the
districts of Hafizabad and Chiniot, on the east by Nankana Sahib, on the
South-East by Okara, on the South Sahiwal & Toba Tek Singh, and on the west
by Jhang.

 

Through
MULTI STAGE SAMPLING the researcher was chose three government universities
from the District Faisalabad;

 

 

 

2.
University of Agriculture Faisalabad.(UAF)

 

3.
Government College university Faisalabad.(GCUF)

 

The
researcher collected 300 questioners from GCUWF, UAF and GCUF  from young students age (18-28).

 

 Sample

A sample
refers to a small representative of the universe (Goods and Hatt,1952)

According
to Staydom, Fouche and Delport (2005), sampling means taking any portion of a
population or universe as representative of that population.

It is
economical in financial and time consuming senses. Large sample enable
researcher to draw more representativeness and accurate conclusions and to make
more accurate predictions than in smaller samples.

To make
research work more manageable, cost effecting and time efficient Sampling is
must.

There are
two basic requirements for a good sampling procedure. Sample must be representative
and Sample must be adequate.

 

 Sampling technique

 

 Multistage
random sampling technique is used for current study, as it is an
appropriate technique for drawing sample from large population with limited
time and cost.

According
to this technique sampling is done in two or more stages. The nature of
sampling units change from one unit to another and final stage provides the
required sampling units (units of analysis).

District
Faisalabad consists of four universities. For sampling researcher selected 3
universities.

 Agriculture University Faisalabad (UAF),
Government College University Faisalabad (GCUF) 
and Govt college for women university(gcuwf) were selected.

 

The
Agriculture University Faisalabad has 17000 young students (age 19-24) ,
Government College University has 27000 young students (age 19-24) and
Government college for women university has….. students.(age 19-24) From  these cluster the researcher collected 300
questioner.

 

Sample size

The sample
of present study consists of 300 respondents. 150 male students and 150 female
students. Three universities of dist Faisalabad were under studied. From each
university 100 respondents (50 male students, 50 female students) were
selected.

 

Data collection

The
purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of Social media usage on
university students, and how the social media and social networking sites
effect their academic performance.

Interview
schedule (a set of questioners) was developed for collection of data.

 

Technique for data collection

?It is the
set of question asked and filled by the interviews?. It refers to the question
formulated according to the requirements and relevance of the research
objectives. Interview survey conducted by personal interviews has some
advantages over the tools of the data

collection.
The personal interview can be regarded as a face to face interpersonal role in
situation in which an interviewer asks respondent questions designed to
obtained answers pertain to the research hypothesis. The questions, their
working and their sequence define the extent to which interviews are structured
( Nachmias & Nachmais, 1998). It has greater flexibility and responsibility
of repeating or rephrasing questions to probe the desired information. For the
present study the interview schedule was developed. The interviews

were
conducted by the researcher by himself.

 

Pre- testing and reliability test

 

Before
actual data collection, interview schedule was pre-tested to examine the work
ability and to ensure the validity of the interview schedule. Pre-Testing was
done by interviewing two respondents from each university. The results revealed
certain shortcomings in the instrument so the researcher made modification
before finalizing it. To test the reliability of the instrument, Cronbach’ Alpha approach was applied. This method
of testing the reliability is commonly used when study of knowledge, attitude
and practice is conducted.

 

Data Editing

 

Interviewing
schedule was checked and edited by the Researcher on the same day at the end of
the interview, to see the completeness, accuracy, and uniformity. The
researcher carried out the cleaning process for the data by checking against
the coding sheet or the original interviewing schedule in order to clean the
data from illegal codes, inconsistencies and improbabilities through computer
editing. When it was ensured that the data were cleaned and free of errors, it
was stored on a hard disk as well as on the USB for further analysis.

 

Coding and Data entry

 

Each
interview schedule was checked by the researcher for possible errors and
missing entries. Variables and their categories were coded for purpose of
analysis. After editing and coding, data were entered in the SPSS version-20.
The statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) is computer software
designed for analyzing the data regarding social sciences.

Various
statistical methods can be carried out by using this software. It also assists
the researcher to recode variables and compute new variables.

 

 Analysis of the data

The data
was collected, arranged and organized. This data was feeded into the computer.
The results were analyzed with the help of computer and would be interpreted.

 

PERCENTAGE:

                 PERCENTAGE have been utilized
for making comparison of various responses.

The
percentage will be worked out by using the following formula:

 

              F

p  =  
________   X  100

               N

 

P =
Percentage

F =
Frequency

N = Total
Number

 

 

Graphical representation

Results
were showed in graphic representation, for this purpose bar graphics and pie
charts were constructed.

 

Data Analysis 
(Uni-variant analysis)

 

The
information was classified into meaningful categories by

developing
frequency distribution tables. because at initial stages of data analysis data
must be described the facts easily and understandable. Average and percentages
were calculated for better understanding of facts and figures.

 

Frequency distribution

 

A
frequency distribution of a single variable, sometimes referred to as a
uni-variant frequency distribution, is the frequency of observations in each
category of a variable.

Now The
first task is to construct frequency distributions to examine the pattern of
the responses to each of the independent and dependent variables under
investigation.

A
frequency distribution of a single variable, sometimes referred to as a
uni-variant frequency distribution. It is the frequency of observations in each
category of a variable.

To
construct a frequency distribution, the researcher simply lists the categories
of the variable and counts the number of observations in each. It gives the
standard form of a univariant frequency distribution.

 

 Bivariate analysis

 

Bivariate
analysis is used to develop the relation between the two variables. It also
indicates direction of relation or association between the variables.

 

Brief
description of statistical methods used in bivariate analysis.

 

Chi-square distribution

 

 Chi square is a common measure of
significance; it tests the hypothesis that there is no relationship between the
columns and rows in a

contingency
table. Chi square is reported as both a number and a probability; if the
probability is higher than about .05, it generally means that we cannot reject
the hypothesis that the two variables are unrelated (ISPSR2010).

Chi square
test was applied to examine relationship between independent and dependent
variables. X2 was computed by following formula:

If the
calculated value of chi square was equal to or higher than the table value at
0.05 level of probability at the given degree of freedom, the relationship was
statistically significant. If it is less than the table value (0.01 level of
probability) it is termed as highly significant.

Where the
calculated value is less than the table value at 0.05 level of significance it
is declared as non-significant. The data is statistically analyzed on (PC)
using SPSS software.

 

Calculations
were made by using following formula:

 

                                   X  = 

 

Where:

 

   O  =
observed frequency

   E  
=  Expected frequency

        = 
Sum of observations

 

Gamma statistics

 

To check
the direction and magnitude of relationship between independent and dependent
variables gamma statistics was used. Calculations were made by using the
following

 

formula:

 

             Ns – Nd

        ___________

         

              Ns + Nd

 

Ns   = 
same order pair

Nd   = 
different order pair

 

 Field experience

 

In a
personal interview which involves one person with another and where question
and answer goes, there is a great need to win a respondent’s confidence. So
that they give free and frank opinion on the questions asked in the questioner.
The researcher took full care and utilized her best efforts to create a
friendly atmosphere. There were many difficulties faced by the researcher
during the collection of data. Some time students refused to fill the

questioner but most of youth cooperated with her.

x

Hi!
I'm Mary!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out