Mata Pelajaran Umum

Mata Pelajaran Umum (MPU)
MPU 3212 Malaysian Economy
Group Assignment
Title: “Road Accident in Malaysia”
Lecturer: Dr. Anita Rosli
Prepared by: Group 20
Group Members:
EHMERALDA CHEW HUI CIAN (BQS18070004)
IRENE TIONG SING MING (BAC18070003)
SABRINA CHUA CHENHWA (BAC18070004)
LAU WEN WEN (BAC18070008)
HO XIAO FENG (BAC18070007)
HII KAI LING (BAC18070009)
DAN SHI HUI (BAC18070010)
HAZLIN WONG (BAC18070002)
SHAREEN CHUNG TUANG CHING (BCS17090010)
TANG SIAN LING (BCS17090012)
JOYCE CHAN ZHI LIN (BBM18070003)
WONG YII ZHEN (BBM18070004)
LIM SHIN YING (BBM18070005)
Submission date: 06 August 2018
Introduction
1.1Review /background to the report
Nowadays, road accidents are very common in every country including Malaysia. Road accident is the biggest causes of the death in Malaysia. What is means by the road accident? Road accidents means that when some automobile crash together or the vehicle crash on the side of the road or the peoples at the road. Road accident is most unwanted thing to happen to a road user, though they happen quite often. The most unfortunate thing is that we don’t learn from our mistakes on road. Most of the road users are quite well aware of the general rules and safety measures while using roads but it is only the laxity on part of road users, which cause accidents and crashes. Main cause of accidents and crashes are due to human errors. We are elaborating some of the common behaviour of humans which results in the accident. For instant, over speeding, drunken driving, distractions to driver, red light jumping, avoiding safety gears like seat belts and helmets, non-adherence to lane driving and overtaking in a wrong manner. Malaysia has the highest road fatality risk (per 100,000 populations) among the ASEAN countries and more than 50% of the road accident fatalities involve motorcyclists. This study has collected and analysed data from the police, government authorities, and national and international research institutes. Every day we can read the news about there is how many people that involved in the accident. We realize that the total numbers of road accidents happen in each year of the year 1998 until year 2006 are reach six digit of number. This is huge and terrible numbers that five to six thousands peoples dead in a year because of involved in the road accidents. As a driver, we should responsibility for what we have done, cannot done some actions that may cause accident occur or injury other person like on phone while driving and drunk driving. Those actions are really dangerous if we do it when we are drive because we cannot control the car well with doing such actions. To summon up our family member are always worried about us and carried about us. 
1.2 Objectives to the report
In the report, we are going to identify about the different factors of road contribute in accidents. As a Malaysian we need to reduce the number of road accident by some solution. We also have the knowledge about the preventative measures for accidents. We will understand what the detrimental effects of traffic on environment are.
THE PROBLEM OF DRIVER DISCIPLINE
Careless Driving
There are many reasons for the accident happen in Malaysia, one of which is that the driver is not attentive when driving. Some drivers always like to do another thing while driving a car, which is easy to cause a great disaster if the driver is not careful. For example, drivers like driving with answering the phone or reply message, drawn to other thing or people which in the outside and look in all direction, or something off because of the trouble driving while picking up thing, one hand taking something stretch hand to open the drawer or on the side of driving with body language action when taking with others even their hands off on the steering wheel and so on.

Drunk Driving
Drunk driving is when a driver is under the influence of alcohol or drugs to drive a motor vehicle. Therefore, it is very dangerous to drive when drunk, and drivers with high blood alcohol concentration also increase the risk of car accidents. According to the regulations of the state administration of quantity supervision, inspection and quarantine, drinking and driving refers to driving behaviors in which the alcohol content in the blood of vehicle drivers is greater than or equal to 20mg/100ml and less than 80mg/100ml. Drunk driving refers to the driving behaviors of drivers whose blood alcohol content is greater than or equal to 80mg/100ml. According to the provisions of the traffic law, a driver’s license for driving a motor vehicle drunk shall be revoked. He shall not regain his license for five years and fined.
Fatigue Driving
Fatigue driving refers to the phenomenon that after a long period of continuous driving, the driver has the disorder of physiological function and the psychological function, and objectively the driving skill declines. Fatigue driving, like drunk driving, is a major cause of car accidents. “Like alcohol or drugs, sleep can slow down your reaction time and affect your judgment. Driving in a daze is as dangerous as driving under the influence of alcohol. Drivers often do not pay attention to fatigue driving, after all, fatigue driving is not illegal. Many people underestimate the negative effects of tried driving, or take chances, not only by taking risks themselves, but also by risking others’ lives. Accidents are often more deadly because they leave drivers too late to brake or turn the wheel in the face of a crash. Generally speaking, the main reason for fatigue driving is lack of sleep or driving when you should be sleeping. For example, it is usually the peak time for fatigue driving between 2a.m. and 6p.m.
Solution
For careless driving, the drivers need to avoid distractions and do something that will interfere with their driving. Drivers should pay 100% attention while driving, so that they can make correct judgment and avoid the accident in time.
Malaysia’s transport minister must increase penalties for drivers who repeatedly make mistakes with drunk driving. More fines, longer suspensions of driver’s licenses, and even more jail time are all waiting for the incorrigible drunk driver.
To avoid fatigue driving, drivers need to have enough sleep for at least six hours before a long driver and rest every two hours, preferably everyone in the car is awake while driving. If you start drifting in the driveway, it is probably a sign of fatigue and drowsiness.
Evidence
lefttopThe police arrested nine people for drunk driving during an early morning traffic operation in Kota Kinabalu.

Irresponsible Pedestrians
Not only that, the perpetrator of the car accident can also be pedestrian. Some of the pedestrians do not responsible for their safety when they are crossing the road or walking beside the road. According to police statistics, there are 562 pedestrians are killed annually mostly in urban areas at year 2010 until year 2013. This evidence shows that irresponsible pedestrian is one of the important causes of the car accident. Even though not all the pedestrians are irresponsible for their safety but most of the pedestrian who accident are the irresponsible pedestrians. There are various reasons that causes the pedestrians become irresponsible.
First, the one of the reason is distraction. One of the main distraction is technology. For example, some pedestrians are being distracted by their smartphone to chat with their friend or check their GPS for direction or watch some movies when walking. Besides, there are some children who are addicted to mobile games may play mobile game when they are walking on the road without looking left and right.
Second, some of the pedestrian is drunk walking. This can cause the accident is because the pedestrians who are drinking too much alcohol and drunk walking may walking on the middle of the road. Not only that, the drunk pedestrians may have a slower reaction times or poor spatial judgment are combined with a relaxed state of mind and cause they cannot respond fast when there are cars drive toward them. So, for this situation, the government need to give some punishment such as penalty to the pedestrian who are drunk walking to avoid this situation happen.

Third, some of the pedestrian who always like to ignore the traffic signs and rules. This situation may happen because of the pedestrians happen the mentality that they think they will not so unlucky when the cross the road by ignoring the traffic signs. For example, the pedestrians cross the road when the traffic signs is red but there are not any car are driving on the road. However, when they cross the road, there may have some vehicles suddenly appear and cause accident.

Fourth, some of the pedestrians who always like to wear dark colors clothing when walking at night. This situation may cause the drivers cannot see the pedestrian as soon as possible and do not have enough time to respond when sawing someone cross the road.
As a solution for the first situations, we must try to advice the people who play their mobile phone when walking to try to put their smartphone into their pocket so that they can avoid themselves from the accident. Second and third situation, the government need to give some punishment such as penalty to the pedestrian who are drunk walking to avoid this situation happen. Forth, the pedestrians who wanted to walk on the road when the condition is dark, it is better for they to wear a white or reflective clothing so the drivers can found them at the first time.

In a short conclusion, pedestrians have the responsible to take care of their safety by avoiding the reasons about.

Aberrant Driving of Young Driver
Road accident is the one of the main causes of the injuries and death in Malaysia. There are 5230 with fatalities, 30,684 of slightly injured, and 6942 of seriously injured among the total number of road accidents which was 265,175. It is an astonished fact that the road accidents kill more and more people in Malaysia but also in other countries too. There are 400,000 people are killed on the roads yearly and more than 4 million injured in road accident in Asia alone. How is the terrible fact for the road accident.

Aberrant driving of young driver is the one of the major cause of road accident. Young driver are the person who aged between 16 to 25 years old and for some countries classified the young driver as 15 to 17 years old. However, young drivers have not enough experienced in driving car even though they are between 15 to 17 years old or 16 to 25 years old. Because of this reason, young drivers have a high rate lead to the road accident.

Moreover, some young drivers are like aberrant driving. Same as with the young drivers around the world, Malaysia is not unaffected to the damage of aggressive and also the irresponsible driving from young driving population. The threaten of aggressive driving has received the attention from many related parties and this problem has became a priority issue in Malaysia. Majority of Malaysian bad driving behavior such as shows bad attitudes which like unsafe lane changes and running stop signs. These behave show that the understanding of the youth’s mind.

The increasing numbers and vehicles registered has become one of the reason for this condition happened. Statistics from the Malaysia Automotive Association (MAA) involved the Malaysian vehicle registration date up to June 30, 2017, there are 28,181,203 units of the total numbers of vehicles. For those keeping score, that’s 0.88 vehicles for every person in the country. Because of the increasing number of drivers’ population, the number of aggressive drivers also be increased and imply that also increase number of road accidents.
State Private Vehicles Public Service Vehicles (PSV)
Motorcycles Cars Perlis     84,500 26,510 385
Kedah     954,751 341,197 7,273
Penang     1,408,528 1,130,601 9,586
Perak     1,359,771 772,591 9,534
Selangor     1,423,821 1,157,268 24,273
Federal Territories   1,863,260 3,987,468 78,752
Negeri Sembilan   557,482 343,007 4,635
Melaka     472,701 344,459 3,425
Johor     1,873,005 1,498,587 20,365
Pahang     600,470 392,200 4,310
Terengganu   393,228 211,124 2,159
Kelantan     549,363 309,663 3,928
Sabah     402,237 697,541 9,574
Sarawak     798,227 813,569 5,834
Business Partner Portals 191,698 1,263,012 1,002
Total     12,933,042 13,288,797 185,035

Figure 1. Number of Vehicle in 2017
Solution of Aberrant Driving by Young Driver
To reduce the aberrant driving by young driver, two pre-license training method can be given which is formal pre-license training and informal pre-license training. Training before getting the license can let the young drivers have the knowledge about driving on the road.

Effects of Formal Training
Formal pre-license training is a training which a candidate driver practices with the accompany of the supervision who is a qualified driving instructor. In this training, the instructor will give a proper instruction on how to drive and it as a part of a structured training process.

The current training systems mainly focus on the "lower class" car driving skills such as vehicle control and test drive on the road when there is a lack of training at a level such as self-evaluation of their own driving skills. It also contained the "higher class" for driver training and it will improve their effectiveness.

Effects of Informal Training
Informal pre-license training is a training which an experienced driver accompanies with the candidate driver. Not only that, it is stimulated by official rule to increase the candidate driver’s driving experience before driving on their own. Young drivers are given 25 to 40 hours for driving experience when they get license for driving by their own in this training.

Illegal racing
Speeding is one of the most common causes of traffic accidents. In monitoring the safety of road users, the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, for example, believes that if the driver is accused of illegal activities related to speeding, or if a police officer indicates that the car is driving too fast or exceeds the published speed limit It is a contributing factor to the crash. For example, in the United States, in 2003, speeding was a factor that caused 31% of all fatal accidents, and 13,380 people were killed in crashes related to speeding.

Illegal racing is a kind of motorcycle racing activity that is held on public roads without the authority of the authorities. Irregular traffic is usually held in urban, rural or industrial areas, regardless of traffic conditions, but usually at midnight.

The behavior of an illegal racing car requires acceleration of the power which reduces the driver’s ability to safely turn around the curve or object in the road, prolongs the necessary distance for parking, and increases the distance traveled by the driver when the driver reacts to a dangerous situation. Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of death among people aged 16 to 20. National statistics show that 49 out of every 1,000 people involved in illegal street competitions were injured.

Most illegal matches in Malaysia involve motorcycles and a car, but heavy vehicles such as trucks and buses also hold an illegal match. Participating in illegal car modification, thus more than 160 km / h, due to the lack of driving etiquette practice results, speed, road traffic accidents are easy, often involving death.

illegal racing happened in Malaysia
The condition of road in Malaysia
The condition of road in Malaysia is one of the reason caused the road accident occurred. The road will become dangerous in raining day usually. It will make the road becomes more slippery for the vehicle when driving on the road. In addition, many potholes could endanger motorists. The deep holes on the road are the nightmare for each motorists. It is because deep holes can make motorists cannot control their motorcycle when crash into the hole on the road and will cause a road accident occur. The potholes there are on highway is more dangerous if the high speed’s vehicle was crashed into the hole on the highway. The broken surface on the road also create the road becomes more dangerous in the night. It is because the road users cannot see the holes while driving in night. Most accidents that involves potholes happen at night and it is because at that time many drivers could not recognize the holes when they are driving. Other than that, insufficient and improper of street light that causes an accident. The street lights are hard to find in rural areas. So, the authorities should take care when driving in the rural area. In some places, the street light cannot be used by people because the street light is already broken and not repaired by the authorities. Not only for the roads in rural area, the conditions of roads in urban areas also needs to take care especially highways. Some of the highway are not smooth and straight and the situation is compounded by sharp corner or edges. This is because the big vehicles such as trucks, buses and lorry will pass by the highway every day. Even though have roadway identification signs are shown, also cannot prevent the road accidents occurred.

To lower the percentages of the road accident that cause by road’s condition, the roadway identification signs also play the role to make the roads safe for road users. It is useful to inform road users to locate and know the road conditions, such as the location of landslide, the location of school, hospitals and many more. If the driver is informed properly the accident will not happen easily. It is possible that motorcyclists also need specific lanes for them. They should be separated from other ‘big’ users like car, lorry, bus and the other type of transportation that are bigger than motorcycles. It will make them more safety and secure from unwanted accident. For the appropriate authorities will take some responds to repair the potholes on the road as soon as possible to reduce the percentage of road accident occurred. The appropriate authorities also need to check the roadway identification sign has been shown at the places that can saw clearly and make sure the street lights are functioning and change the bulb of street lights at time, it is better have to set a time period to change the bulb of street lights. Last but not least, the appropriate authorities need to set up the notification lights and notification boards to remind the road users if have any dangerous on the road that can cause a road accident occurred. There are some sample of road below:

The potholes on road in urban area.

The potholes on road in rural area.

The broken surface of road.

Weather
As the weather get worse, the chance of a car accident increase. In general, bad weather, such as strong winds, heavy fogs and rainstorm can affect driving.

When there is a rainstorm, the falling rain makes it difficult for the driver to drive From the media, we often hear and see accident reports of multiple cars colliding, there are mostly tragedies caused by low visibility. Similarly, the fog will also significantly affect the driver’s line of sight. At this time, the role of the headlights will be affected.

On rainy days, bad weather also makes it easier for drivers to skid and squat on the road and collide with other cars. The impact of rain on the road conditions is very large. After the sand and dust on the road surface absorb the rain, it will become a clay-like film. The tread of the tire cannot exclude of this layer of the soil film that tires are easier to slip. Other than that, after the rain, the inconsistent friction coefficient of the road surface is also one of the causes of the tire slip. For example, high-speed driving and emergency braking can cause the tire slip when it rains.

Example

Tire slip in raining day.

Do not keep the distance with the front car and cause the car colliding in raining day.

Low visibility in raining day.

Evidence

(Sibu 1March 2017) It was raining when the accident occurred. Suspected rainy road slippery, the truck hit the big tree. The truck was out of control, and hit into the roadside trees, causing two men in the car to hit hard and died on the spot.

Solution
The driver must keep the distance with other cars. The road surface is slippery on rainy days, the driver must always pay attention to the distance from the front car to prevent the tires from slipping due to emergency braking. The driver also must control the speed at the turn.

The driver also must keep the speed, do not slam or lift the accelerator. When driving in the rainy days, driver be sure to keep the speed of the vehicle. The action of stepping on and releasing the accelerator pedal should be smooth. Do not suddenly step on the accelerator or suddenly raise the accelerator to slow down.
Conclusion
As a conclusion,Road accident in Malaysia is increasing every year and is dangerous to all people. In this situation all people must realize and give more attention to decrease the rate of road accident. At the same time, all people must cooperation with authorities like police to settle this problem. As we know many factors that cause this problem and the main factor is from human. After that the causes are road condition from poor, climate and vehicle factors. The rate of road accidents could be reduced by the various actions including from education, comfortable road condition, campaign and enforced the law. I think moral are play a very significant role in our life, it teach us how to love other person and ourselves but before we love other person we need to learn how to love ourselves and appreciate the life that have been given by god for us. We as a driver, we need to responsibility for what we have done, cannot done some actions that might cause accident occur or injury other person such as, on phone while driving, drunk driving and so on. Those actions are really dangerous if we do it when we are drive because we cannot control the car well with doing such actions.
Remember that, our family member are always worried about us and carried about us. There is no peoples are wishing to involve in a road accidents, it is really a tragedy it make a lot of people lost of their family member. Beside that, all Malaysian should be cooperating to reduce the number of road accidents. If all people give support and cooperation, this problem could be settled easily and our country also can decrease the number of deaths that result from road accident.

References
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