Martinelli,2001 affected by their condition. Wolf,2000 Structure is

Martinelli,2001 An organization can be characterized as an arrangement of components in communication, organized level and basic leadership units. Snow &Hrebiniak,1980, contended that organization is a gathering of at least two individuals working helpfully towards a typical target or sets of goals. To put it plainly, an organization is a gathering of individuals cooperating to accomplish a reason that can’t be accomplished by an individual working alone. An organization is a device utilized by individuals to arrange their activities to get something they want or esteem that is, to accomplish their objectives. Organizations are social gathering developed to accomplish specific closures. They are portrayed by the cognizant division of work, duty, and expert frameworks, and the requirement for control.
Hall,2000 An organization is a collectivity with a relatively identifiable limit, a standardizing order(rules), positions of authority(hierarchy), communication systems, and membership planning systems(procedures), this collectivity exists, on a generally nonstop premise in an environment, and engages in activities that are normally identified with an arrangement of objectives; the activities have results for organizational member, the organization itself, and for society. Armstrong and Stephen, 2008 organizations are open frameworks which change contributions to results and ceaselessly subject to and affected by their condition.
Wolf,2000 Structure is the engineering of business competence, initiative, ability, practical connections and courses of action. Structure might be considered as the set up example of connections among the segments or parts of the organization. Notwithstanding, the structure of a social framework isn’t noticeable in an indistinguishable routes from a natural or mechanical frameworks. Jo &Hatch,2014 Structure alludes to the relations between the components of an organized whole. The structure of an organization is the example of orgabnizatioanl parts, connections and techniques that empower such organize activities by its individuals. The structure idea can be utilized for everything.
Greenberg,2011 alludes to organizational structure as the formal setup between the people and gatherings concerning the duties, allocation of tasks and authority in the organization.. Stroth et al,2002 accentuated that organizational structure speaks to the relationship among various parts played by units inside an organization. These diverse point of view of perspectives of definition determine that the term organizational structure isn’t really focused on any univocal attributes, but instead more inclined to have different measurements. Ajagbe,2007 sees organizational structure as ‘how work assignments are formally isolated, assembled and composed’. Formalization measures the degree to which an association can utilize tenets and systems to recommend conduct. Long et al,2012 proposed that organizations structure should be designed in a way to guarantee that department and people that need to organize their efforts have lines of communication that are built into the structure. Csaszer,2008 conceded to the possibility that organizational structure shapes performance in an association.
Ajagbe,2007 states that organizational structure ‘is the formal arrangement of tasks and reporting relationships that controls, facilitates and motivate employees with the goal that they participate to accomplish an organizations objectives. He additionally affirms that organization can plan its structure when its chooses how it need its individuals to act, what attitude its wants to promote, and what its wants its individuals to accomplish, and support the development of cultural values and norms to get these expected attitudes, behaviour and norms. Monavarian, Asgari and Ashna, 2007 “Organization structure is an arrangement of dividing the task to determined duties and coordinates them.. Rezayian,2005, ‘The organization makes the structure to facilitate the exercises of work factors and control the individuals activity’. The basic role of organization structure is to influence behavior of individuals and groups to achieve effective performance.
2.1.2 Features of Organizational Structure
For companies to achieve long term success, they must create and maintain healthy environments in the workplace. Good organizations understand that its takes a collaborative effort to compete in their market segment and produce continuous profits. Recognizing and understanding the characteristics of good organizations can help detest problem in the organization if it is unprofitable and take corrective steps to operate a successful business.
A. Offer training opportunities
Maureen, 2001. Training is the process of teaching, informing, or educating people so that they become well qualified as possible to their work and so that they become well qualified to perform in positions of greater difficulty and responsibility. It can be deduced that staff training and development are deliberate efforts of an organization aimed at improving the knowledge, skill and behavioral modification required to perform a given task by the individual employee
B. Teamwork.
Marks, Mathieus & Zaccaro,2001, define teamwork as ‘team members’ independent acts that converts inputs to outcomes through cognitive, verbal and behavioral activities directed towards organizing task work to achieve collective goals. It also include a group of people working together toward achieving a desired goal( Oroko,2013). Nowadays, managers in several organizations are making more team assignments to employees with aim to reinforce their knowledge and enhance their professional skills. (Hartenian,2003). Working with teams enables employees to cooperate, improve individual skills and provide practical feedback without making any conflict between any of the members.( Jong, Richard, Paul, Slone & Peter, 2007)
C. Communication
Bloisi et al,2007 state that it is a managers responsibility to establish and maintain internal communication channels upward, downward and horizontal directions that is communication between managers and employees as well as between employees on the same level. The main objectives for internal communication includes transmitting directions or ideas along the lines of command, providing confirmation, information and feedback upwards; informing staff on changes; encouraging and motivating employees.
There are different basic structural forms—functional, divisional, and matrix—and some combinations or hybrids of them. Most organizations begin with a functional organization structure. As they become larger and more complex in terms of the products and services they offer or markets and clients they serve, they reorganize into some form of divisional structure, perhaps with a few centralized functional departments.
The importance of structure as a source of influence is so widely accepted that some experts define the concept as those features of the organization that serve to control or distinguish its parts. (Gibson, Ivancevich, DonnllyJr &Konopaske, 2003). The key word in this definition is control. Employees behaviour is controlled in the organization, they just don’t do what they want, they do what the organization wants and pay to do.
In the view of Griffin,(2014), because such structure is not designed to change rapidly, functional organizational structure works well in a stable environment where business strategies are less inclined to need changes or updating. This form of structure is particularly effective where there is a large volume of standardized product or sales, reduced level of change within the industry, etc. It is also effective where there are minimal changes dues to fashion or other changes in taste or technology where competition is primarily based on cost. Indeed, functional organization structure is ideal where activities of a business are organized around area of specialisation. It involves a considerable amount of process standardization with a business, with a real decision making authority centred art the top of the organization.
Weihrich ; Koontz,(2005), inform the functional organization is not only the most widely used basis for organizing activities but it is present in almost every enterprise at some level in the organization structure. In addition, Weihrich ; Koontz,(2005)list the following as advantages of functional organizational structure,
– Logical reflection of functions
– Follow principles of occupational specialisation
– Maintains power and prestige of major functions
– Simplifies training and furnishes means of tight control at the top.
Employees within the functional divisions of an organization tends to perform a specialised set of tasks. This leads to operational efficiencies within that group. However, it could also lead to a lack of communication between the functional group, within an organization, making the organization slow and inflexible. Lewis,(2003).
Also called a “product structure” , the divisional structure groups each organizational function into a division. Each division within a divisional structure contains all the necessary resources and functions within it. Lewis,(2004). Organizations that are spread over a wide area may find advantages in organizing along geographic lines so that all the activities performed in a region are managed together. In a large organization, simple physical separation makes centralized coordination more difficult. Dicheng,(2002).
The advantage of this type of structure is that the personnel in this grouping focus on the particular needs of their product line and become experts in its development, production, and distribution. A disadvantage, at least in term of large organizations, is the duplication of resources. Lewis,(2004). The divisional structure differs from the functional by grouping diverse functions into divisions. All the necessary resources such as manufacturing, research and development, and marketing are contained within each division. If the functional structure is organized according to the various inputs that enable an organization to produce goods and services, the divisional structure is organized according to the various outputs of the organization. Each division may be responsible for a different set of products, geographical markets, or clients. Thus, one can have product, region, market-segment, or client-based divisional structures.
The matrix structure groups employees by both function and product. This structure can combine the best of both separate structures. A matrix organization frequently uses teams of employees to accomplish work, in order to take advantage of the strengths, as well as make up for the weaknesses, of functional and decentralised forms. Lewis ; Mendon,(2004). The unique characteristics of the matrix form is that both divisional and functional structures are implemented simultaneously. The division managers and functional managers have equal authority within the organization, and employees report to both of them. Most of the firm’s employees will have dual assignments. Since the necessary resources in a matrix organization are distributed between functions and divisions, resource allocation in the form of scheduling and priorities must be negotiated among these groups.
Demsete,(1988), because the matrix structure is often used in organizations using the line-&- staff setup, it is also fairly centralised. Within the project or team unit, decision making can occur faster than in a line-&-staff structure, but probably not as quickly as in a line structures. The matrix structure is often overlaid on top of a company’s functional structure to tackle projects that involve multiple departments. Project managers recruit staff for their teams from different departments so that all the necessary functions work on it together. This offers companies flexibility and a better use of resources than a purely functional model. The downside is that authority and the chain of command become more confused, as team members answer to both the project manager and their department supervisor.
The networks are formed when the organizations are faced with rapid changes of technology, short life cycles of product and dispersed and specialised markets. In a network, required assets are distributed among some network partners as there is no unified organization in a network to generate the products or services and the networks is producer or supplier. In a network structure, the partners are associated via customers supplier relations and a type of free market system is created. It means that the goods are traded among network partners as in a free market, they are traded. Jo ; Batch,(2014). A network structure is ideally suited for volatile environments that change rapidly and dramatically and when innovation is the primary basis of strategic advantage. Under more stable conditions, the network structure may not be as effective as some of the other more traditional structure.


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