Many that of the control group. In general,

Many studies to date have examined whether “playingviolent video games would heighten the level of aggressionor increase aggressive behavior” 3, 5. Previous studiescan be roughly divided into experimental studies, surveystudies, and panel studies, and they often indicated thepossibility that video games could have adverse effects onaggression or aggressive behavior. In laboratoryexperiments, those who are in the experimental group playaggressive video games in a laboratory, and their aggressionis later compared with that of the control group. In general,laboratory experiments have a strong ability to identifycausal relationships; however, they have problems in thatexperimental scenes are artificial and that identified causalrelationships are usually short-term relationships.

Meanwhile, in survey studies, the amount of video gameuse and aggression of the participants are measured toexamine the correlation between them. Although some ofthe previous studies indicated that there was a significantpositive correlation between the amount of video game useand aggression 2, 11, 7, one-wave studies cannot identifythe cause and effect even though they can identifycorrelations. Survey studies, therefore, overcome theartificiality problem, but are still unable to identify causalrelationships. Although it is still a survey study, a panel studycan to some degree get closer to identifying causalrelationships than other methods that obtained correlationsin one-time studies 4. A panel study is a survey study inwhich the same variables are measured multiple times withthe same subjects. Causal relationships can be estimated byanalyzing data obtained through this method. There havenot been many panel studies so far; therefore, we conducteda panel study in order to examine the effect of video gameson aggressive behavior in real life.

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So far, the amount of time spent on using videogames and games of specific genres were used asindependent variables in panel studies8, 6. In addition tothese variables, in this study, we measured the amount oftime that the participants were exposed to violent scenes aswell as their preference for violent games. Although theamount of video game use changes with the situations thatthe participants are in, preference usually stays the same;therefore preference has the advantage that it remains stablein terms of time. We also studied not only aggressive behavior butalso pro-social behavior as dependent variables. A negativerelationship between violent video games and pro-socialbehavior has been reported 1.

One of the examples inwhich aggressive behavior and pro-social behavior wereused as dependent variables in a study is the study byWiegman & van Schie (1998) 10. They used the amountof use and preference for violent games as video gamevariables, and examined correlations between the videogame variables and dependent variables. As a result, theysuggested that there was a significant negative correlationbetween the amount of video game use and pro-socialbehavior, and that boys exhibiting strong preference forviolent games were likely to show aggressive behavior andunlikely to show pro-social behavior compared to thoseexhibiting weak preference for violent games. In this study,170we conducted a panel study to examine if playing violentvideo games would cause an increase in aggressivebehavior and a decrease in pro-social behavior

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