Malware, short for malicious software, is an umbrella termused to refer to a variety of forms of harmful or intrusive software, includingcomputer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, ransomware, spyware, adware, scareware,and other malicious programs. It can take the form of executable code, scripts,active content, and other software.Types of Malware:· AdwareThe term adware is frequently used to describe a formof malware which presents unwanted advertisements to the user of a computer.The advertisements produced are usually pop-ups or unlosable windows.· SpywareSpyware is malware which aims to gather informationabout users without their knowledge.
· VirusA virus is a type of malware replicates itself andmodifies or deletes file on the infected device. · WormA computer worm is a standalone malware computerprogram that replicates itself in order to spread to other computers. Often, ituses a computer network to spread itself. Worms almost always cause at leastsome harm to the network, even if only by consuming bandwidth, whereas virusesalmost always corrupt or modify files on a targeted computer.· Trojan Trojans are malware disguised as a different file. Forexample they could be spread by an email attachment that looks unsuspicious,leading the users into opening it because it has been disguised.
Many trojansact as a backdoor, contacting a controller which can then have unauthorizedaccess to the affected computer. Trojans may allow an attacker to access users’personal information. It can infect other devices connected to the network.Ransomware attacks are also often carried out using a Trojan.
· ScarewareScareware usually scares users into buying or clickingan item in which could infect their device with other malware. Another approachis to trick users into uninstalling legitimate antivirus software or disablingtheir firewall.