1. Reasons of League of Nation’s Failure:
The failure of League of Nations can be recognized to various reasons:
(a) Absence of Great Powers:
Covenant of the League was made a section bundle of the harmony settlement. It would have been brilliant that if they had it kept independent. There were numerous states which think about the treaty of Versailles as an arrangement of retaliation. By not rectifying the treaty, they refused to be the members of the League. The nonappearance of the strong forces from the international organization weakened her and was completely in charge of its massive failure. Japan, Germany and Italy likewise left the League and their leaving probably debilitated the League.
(b) Domination Of France and England:
It was felt that the League was intimidated by England and France and eventually alternate states started losing their trust in that association.
(c) Rise Of Dictatorship:
The rise of dictatorship in Italy, Japan and Germany drained the odds of achievement of the League of Nations.
(d) Limitations Of Legal Methods:
The League presented the limitations of the legal methods:
The League was frankly operational in structure and likely would have worked if there had existed a wave of interest of any community. Laws coming out from the public opinion cannot work in it. On account of League the law proposed and opinion disposed. According to Lincoln:
“Public sentiment is everything. With public sentiment nothing can be fail; without it nothing can be succeed”
(e) Lack Of Mutual Co-Operation:
The absence of mutual cooperation among the members of the league headed for collapse. Not realizing the fact that cooperation is always essential for the achievement of any organization.
The League was an instrument for France by giving her security from Germany. Whereas Great Britain needed league ensuring Her colonialist interest. Hitler discovered league a great obstacle in the path of Germany.
(f) Narrow Nationalism:
Limited patriotism was prevailing among the people groups of the world. France was progressively worried about her national security. Japan intoxicated by her development as a politically influential nation, while Italy was concerned about her damage. Germany was more into hold her national esteem even at the cost of aggressive military experience.
(g) Manchurian Crisis:
The evening of Sep. 18-19, 1931 some Japanese fighters making an attempt to blow the railroad line near Mukdan. Japan took full benefit from this case and on the 18th Sep 1931 attacked Manchuria and involved every Japanese city north of Mukdan. But league failed to impose any sanctions on Japan and on March 27, 1933 Japan chose to pull back her enrollment from League of Nation.
2. Strengths of UN:
The years 1943-1945 were dominated by the notion of a unified, comprehensive, coherent and strictly hierarchical security architecture controlled and directed by the club of five world policemen (USA, USSR, Great Britain, France and China). This was intended to make the UN more capable of action than its predecessor organization. Once more, the common primary goal of the coalition of victors was the permanent neutralization of the defeated powers. Supported by 51 countries at the time of its foundation. (currently 192 countries).
The UN was, so to speak, “invented” in 1945 but it has not (yet) been completed because this type of entity is never completed. Just like the League of Nations, the UN has resolution clauses (Article 14 and Article 108-9) and, like its predecessor, it has not used them to date. And despite this its structures, like everything in the world, are exposed to revolution. One has not been able to do with war, genocide, oppression or poverty because the forces of nationalism, imperialism, capitalism, and statism have repeatedly interrupted any move made towards libertarianism and internationalism. Because the United Nations has been a leading force for equality and human rights in the world during its existence, it has been a prime target for mutiny by hierarchical forces. Plutocratic first world governments have used their power within the UN to push imperialistic policies, and to subvert programs designed to keep peace between nations and protect human rights.
Just as the nation states created capturing sovereign territories in 18th and 19th centuries by means of use of force to enforcing the general rule of law, an order was to be created in the 20th century that would now include not merely internal national regions and areas but the nations as a whole, place international law above arbitrary national law and monopolize the use of force at international level, only deploying it collectively against law-breakers.
In 1993 some 80,000 people from 70 different countries were deployed in 14 peacekeeping missions. In 1988 this major institution was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for its achievements. The first time active peace enforcement operations were carried out was in Somalia (1993). Secondly the main strong factor of UN that this did not allow the straightforward implementation of legal principles, but forced the international organization to make acceptable compromises and the value of this should not be underestimated prevented the Security Council from passing resolutions which it would have subsequently been unable to enforce (against a major power). But the veto principle rapidly degenerated because it was not used strictly for the countries themselves but to protect client states throughout the world.