Macular degradation occurs more generally after the age of 60 and is also termed as aAge related Macular degradation . The macular is a region in retina, which is responsible for the for central vision .AMD is a disease , which leads to the blindness or either visual loss.
Its Multifactorial pathogenisis involves lot of complex metabolic intraction , functions and environmental and genetic factors. This disease causes changes to the mascula bringing problems to the central vision , without pain.The one of the good thing about this defect is that it mostly don’t produce a total loss of sight .
Macula is provided with few millions of photo receptors called cone cells . when the disease affect a person it leads to the damage of the cones , stopping them from work. AMD occurs mainly in two forms namely “Wet “, which is less common and “Dry” age- related macular degradation , morre common causing progression in causing visual loss .Wet age related macular degradation , more commonly due to the growth of unwanted blood vessel from choroid region to macula , leading to the intrepation of the central region of the retina .The new blood vessel which arises in the region of the choroid is known as Choroidal neovasculation or CNV , which very often leaks blood and fluid .These blood and fluid distrubs the basic functions of the macula and cause the central vision to blur leading to the rapid and severe vision loss .
Once a eye gets affeced with the disease the other eye is also having , equal amount of the risk by which it gets affected. Mostly, people with dry form are at the risk of developing the wet form.Retinal drusen , retina gets yellow deposition under it , which is common in the people ageing over 60 and above . This defect can be detected by the usage of eye care profession Dry age related macular degradation , causes slow breakdown of the light sensitive cells . Leads to less functioning of the macula by diminishing the central vision involving 3 stages namely ; early , intermediate or advanced common for both the eyes. In advanced AMD , the breakdown of light sensitive cells and supportive cells occur , making reading and recognizing faces a difficult one . The dry form is more common AMD , which doesn’t have any leakage of fluid or blood in the retina.
Risk influencing factors for AMD includes the following such as , smoking , gender , heridatory aspects, obesity , color race , a diet with low fruits and vegetables , high blood pressure and cholesterol .The diagnosis of this disease includes Dilutation by eye drop usage to widen the pupil and by the use of retinal photography , flurescein angiography and tomography . Treatment for both the Wet and Dry AMD varies with each other ; Wet AMD involves the use of laser surgery , photodynamic therapy and with a injection. The Dry AMD does not contain any treatment till date , its becoming progressive that some patient are normal with this defect. Change of lifestyle like eating a high balanced diet ,maintaining BP , and not smoking .