Literature pollution and its management. They were

Literaturesurvey:      Gasperiet al .,(2014)  states that marine litter intended to examinethe quality and quantity of floating plastic debris in the River Seine throughuse of an extensive regional network of floating debris-retention booms. The significantproportion consisted of food wrappers/containers and plastic cutlery, probablyoriginating from voluntary or involuntary dumping, urban discharges and surfacerunoff. Most plastic items are made of polypropylene, polyethylene and, to alesser extent, polyethylene terephthalate.Ogata et al., (2009) states that effect of PCB concentrations inpolyethylene pellets.

 Shevealy et al., (2011) explained about Honolulustrategy tool. They weredescribed and catalyzed the multi-pronged and holistic response required tosolve the problem of marine debris .To guide monitoring and evaluation ofglobal progress on specific strategies at different levels of implementationincluding local, national, regional, and international efforts andachievements. The important goal of this strategy was to decrease theecological, human health, and economic impacts of marine debris worldwide. The abundance and distribution ofanthropogenic debris show considerable spatial variability. The geographicaldistribution of plastic debris is strongly influenced by hydrodynamics,geomorphology and anthropogenic activity.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Barnes et al., (2009). Singare,P.

U., (2012) suggested thatplastics accumulation and synthetic rubber can be controlled by recycling andincineration and glass based material accumulation can be controlled only byrecycling. The investigation of Thane creek indicates that plastics carry bags,milk/oil bags, plastic bottles and foot wares are some of the major NBDSWmaterials responsible for solid waste pollution.Glasby, G.P. and Roonwal, G.S.

, (1995) reviewed about sources ofmarine pollution and its management. They were also discussed about domesticsewage, pesticide, oil and industrial wastes and its occurrence. Populationgrowth and rising income have resulted in a rapid growth in MSW generation rateof the Chennai. Solid waste management accomplished  by source segregation, door to doorcollection, abolition of open storage, daily sweeping of the street , wastesprocessing by energy recovery or composting and  sanitarylandfilling. The Chennai waste management shows that cost effective wastemanagement is provided by the private sector. Esakku, S., et al.

,(2007). Lee, D.I., Cho, H.S.

and Jeong, S.B., (2006) explainedabout marine litter has also become one of the serious environmental,economical (especially fisheries) and social problems in Korea. Thus, it wasurgently required to develop practical management strategies to control theinput from shipping (fisheries activities) and land (through rivers), to assesstheir potential impact on marine environments and fishery resources, and toclean up the accumulated debris on the seabed.

Survey the amounts ofdistribution patterns of marine litter in ports and major fisheries areas,which aim to provide the practical guidelines for clean-up operations, anddevelopment of technical equipment  forpractical prevention of inputs of land-based litter through rivers and recoveryof marine litter on shallow and deep sea bottoms, treatment and/or reuse ofmarine litter. The main functions of ContainmentBooms was prevent spreading of the marine floating debris and theeffective collection. The development of a barrier system for floating debrisin rivers is introduced.

The system is designed to prevent pollution of coastalwaters caused by marine debris which originates from land. The system consistsof a barrier boom, a mooring system and a boom winder. A quantitative assessment of debris present in the deepseafloor (30–300 m depth) was carried out in 26 areas off the coast of threeItalian regions in the TyrrhenianSea, using a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV).

The dominant type ofdebris (89%) was represented by fishing gears, mainly lines, while plasticobjects were recorded only occasionally. Abundant quantities of gears werefound on rocky banks in Sicily and Campania (0.09–0.12 debris m-2),proving intense fishing activity. Angiolillo,M., et al.

, (2015).Moore, S.L. andAllen, M.J., (2000) evaluate and quantify marine debris found alongbeaches and seafloor by trawling. They were reported fishing gear was the mostcommon type of anthropogenic debris.Sesini, M.

, (2011)states that sources of plastic debris can be land-based (estimated at eightypercent) or ocean-based and they relate to four main categories: sewage,tourism, fishing, and waste from ships and boats. He suggested that innovative technologydevelopment are essential to reduce plastic entering from land into the marineenvironment. Research should assess the impact of persistent material on theoceans, on the other hand technology should consider prevention, removal, andways of recycling. Huber, S.

M., explained about   the effectiveness of long yellow floatingbarrier in Eslava creek and Woodcock branch. This study carried out visualobservations of the barrier and the surrounding area were taken before, during,and after a rainfall event to examine how much debris is actually caught andwhere the debris comes from. He suggested that, the study can be used to decidewhether another debris barrier would be an appropriate investment, and identifypossible modes of improvement for a future installation.(Donot mentioned year in this article). Vegter, A.C.

, et al., (2014) highlights a growing concernrelated to threats posed to marine wildlife from marine litter and fragmentedplastic debris, the need for data at scales relevant to management, and theurgent need to develop interdisciplinary research and management partnershipsto limit the release of plastics into the environment and curb the futureimpacts of plastic pollution. They suggested that the costs andbenefits of mitigating plastic pollution, such as debris-retention booms thatintercept plastic debris prior to dilution at sea, can significantly reducedamage to wildlife. Wahl, T.

L., (1992) describes about structuresand equipment most commonly encountered on reclamation projects, namely trashracks, stationary and traveling screens and mechanical raking equipment. Trashcontrol structures must remove debris that would cause damage or operationaldifficulties at downstream facilities. Booms are often provided upstream ofspillways, intakes, or screening structures for collect large floating debris.Phillips, D.L.

, (1998) reported that,understanding the sources, quantities, composition and transport mechanisms oflitter entering the drainage system and examination of methods for its removal.One agreement was signed during August 1996 to design, install and monitor tenprototypes in a two-year program under a $100,000 grant. The capture efficiencyof the device was very high compare other litter collection device. Theobjective of the project was to determine the trapping efficiency of eachprototypes. The goal of the project to develop a litter trap that removedfloating materials from urban stormwater.Hunter, G.J.

, (2003) explained the differenttypes of traps which were used in stormwater for removal of floating debris. Hedescribes clearly about proprietary of the devices and installing location ofdevice that best suits for their individual design characteristics at source,in-line, end of line etc.Begum, S.

, Rasul, M.G. and Brown, R.

J., (2008) discussedabout pollutant trapping efficiency and comparative study of devices. Thisstudy is very useful to take quick decisions about the most efficient and costeffective measures.

RichardC. Lathrop et al., (2012) describes floating blue green algae removed by three sided trapezoid shaped deflector boom.This boom system preventing algae scums and other floating debris from enteringthe enclosed swimming area at B.B.

Clarke Beach.The research described in this feasibilityreport of “How the oceans canclean themselves” indicates thatThe Ocean Cleanup Array is a feasible and viable method to remove large amountsof plastic pollution from a major accumulation zone known as the Great PacificGarbage Patch (Boyan etal., 2016).

The amount ofplastics found ocean and modelled scenarios depending on where theplastic-removal devices are located (Jambeck,2015). Modeling marine surfacemicroplastic is transportedto assess optimal removal locations (Sherman et al., 2016). The characterization of marine plastics and their environmentalimpacts (Florian et al., 2014).Plastic waste (Management and Handling)Rules, Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, 2016.Productionstatus of plastic in India (FICCI, 2014).

       The state of plastic waste isnotoriously hard to measure.  There arefive major gyres in the world: the North Pacific, the South Pacific, the IndianOcean, the North Atlantic and the South Atlantic. These act as accumulationzones for marine debris, which is forced into the centre where winds andcurrents are weaker (Moore et al., 2001). Main sources and movement pathways for plastic in the ma­rineenvironment. (Kershaw et al., 2011).

  Scientists estimate that thereare currently trillions of pieces of plastic in the ocean – that means thereare more pieces of plastic in the ocean than stars in our galaxy (Jambeck  et al.,2015). Andrady (2011) studied the micro plastics in the marineenvironment. The accurate estimates of total plastic content in theupper ocean should take the effect of wind-induced mixing into account (Kukulkaet al., 2012; Collignon et al.

, 2012). Jayasirietal.(2013) assessed the quantity of plasticdebris occurring on recreationalbeaches in Mumbai and reportedthe seasonal changes in the debris load. Sul et al.

(2014) discussed about presentand future of microplastic pollution in the marine environment.         Markose et al. (2017) reported that automaticcanal cleaning system makes use of solar power to remove floating trashes. Thedevice is placed across the water body so that flow occurs through lower grids.

Waste like plastic bottles, cans, bio-debris etc. are lifted up by usingconveyer fitted with projecting teeth. These belts are driven by solar poweredmotors. Photovoltaic cells used are coupled with storage batteries for full dayworking. Secondary conveyer is provided to remove the trashes to the dumpingregions.

        Unnisa et al. (2011) statethat management of plastic waste among three key stakeholders: the producers ofthe plastics (those with high propensity of ending up as litters), theconsumers of the plastics and the appropriate authorities responsible forplastic waste management. Ferguson et al.(2010) analyses provide clues in understanding particle fate and potentialdebris sources, and address ecological implications of pelagic plastic debris .Moore, C.J.

, (2008) reported that synthetic polymersare creating more threatening to all marine life.         Cole et al(2011) states that microplastics as contaminants in the marine environment andsummarise the properties, nomenclature and sources of microplastics, discussthe routes by which microplastics enter the marine environment; evaluate themethods by which microplastics are detected in the marine environment, assessspatial and temporal trends of microplastic abundance; and discuss theenvironmental impact of microplastics. Kumaret al (2016) summarise that debris characteristics, accumulation andtransport pathways along the Indian coastline it poses a serious threat tomarine organisms, ecosystems, human health and navigational safety.Quantification, assessment and monitoring of this debris along the beaches,coastal waters and on the seabed.        Oigman et al (2007) assess the quantity, size,composition and abundance of marine litter. Jambeck, et al (2007), studied about systematic approach of marine debrisreduction and monitoring marine pollution.

This research conducts beachsurveys and examines the types and quantity of solid waste that accumulates onshore.Singare (2012) studied and quantified three major non-biodegradable solidwastes (NBDSW) viz. plastics, synthetic rubber and glass in the Mithi river ofMumbai. The Bandalong Litter Trap isa floating device installed at strategic locations along waterways to collectand retain floating litter, vegetation and other debris. The system operatessilently without any mechanical assistance, capturing and retaining debrisready for removal and disposal. Bandalong Litter Traps are suitable for mostwaterways wider than 2 metres, including waterways subject to tidal action,rivers, streams, channels and open bodies of water. (http://www.

bandalong.com.au/products-and-services/bandalong-litter-trap)   http://stormwatersystems.com/bandalong-litter-trap/A fresh catch of plastic waste, Versova’sKoli community and an urban design studio are figuring out how to use theplastic waste washed up on the creek shore profitably. (http://www.thehindu.

com 2017) (http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/mumbai/a-fresh-catch-of-plastic-waste/article17444206.ece)Agastya Buoyant is committed for designing and developingtrash boom for the Clean Ganga Mission drive under the Government of Indiathrough its rich technical skills acquired and resource developed. With the activities for the watersurface cleaning has already been started since January 2016 for the RiverGanga under the supervision of National Mission for Clean Ganga on differentscale using appropriate technologies, Agastya Buoyant has proudly recommendedthe necessity of trash boom for the above requirement in addition to theskimmers being deployed to enhance the efficiency of the cleaning.

Upto 90% of the material sourced in India making it anindigenous product (http://www.agastyabuoyant.com/activity.html#clean).Bangalore residents find innovative ways to save their lakes through simple mechanism called ‘trash boom’ is nowbeing used to remove weeds, water hyacinth and bring the aquatic life back toAvalahalli Lake in JP Nagar.

(http://bangaloremirror.indiatimes.com/ 2017)(http://bangaloremirror.

indiatimes.com/bangalore/civic/residents-find-innovative-ways-to-save-their-lakes/articleshow/59042262.cms?)Patil et al., (2016) described about mechanicalaquatic harvester  is a type of bargeused for a variety of tasks, including aquatic plant management and trashremoval in rivers, lakes, bays, and harbors.

Trash removaldevice are designed to collect and unload vegetation and debris using aconveyor system on a boom, adjustable to the appropriate cutting height, up to6 feet below the surface of the water. This innovative device wasrelated to skimmer boats, i.e., work boats for collecting and disposing offloating solid waste materials in harbors and waterways.Rafique and Langde (2017) states thatthe river cleaning machine is consists of waterwheel driven conveyer mechanismwhich collect & remove the wastage, garbage & plastic wastages fromwater bodies. This machine mainly works on the principle of belt drivemechanism which lifts the debris from the water. The main aim of the project isto automate the sewage cleaning process in drainage, to reduce the spreading ofdiseases to human.

Khalaji etal., (2010) describes different types of gross pollutant traps. Thisstudy intended to provide with a working knowledge of its GPTs for exampleremoval rates being achieved, how each GPT responds to its catchment size andprovide information on the overall cost effectiveness of each GPTs. The expectedoutcome of this project is ability to accurately monitor, inspect and cleantheir GPTs to maximize performance and cost effectiveness and better plan forfuture GPTs.Singare(2012) studied pollution problem due to non-biodegradable solid waste (NBDSW)along the Vasai Creek of Mumbai. The quantification studies were repeated afterthe spring tide to know their accumulation in one spring tide, i.e.

, 15 days.The collected waste material was properly dumped in the garbage depots afterthe quantification studies were finished. He suggested that need to enforcestrict control measures against the disposal of solid waste by adopting awell-planned waste management system.Singare,P.U. (2012) reported to quantify major non-biodegradable solid wastes viz.plastics, synthetic rubber and glasses which are accumulated at three differentsampling stations of Ulhas River such as Ambivli, Kalyan and Dombivli.

Thepredominant solid waste materials, viz. plastics, glass and synthetic rubberwere collected, washed and weighed after drying. The quantification studieswere repeated after the spring tide to know their accumulation in one springtide, i.e.

, 15 days. The results are presented in kilograms per hectare. Theresults of the study indicate that the major contribution to non-biodegradablesolid waste pollution was mainly due to plastic followed by synthetic rubbermaterials. Among solid waste materials, plastic carry bags, milk and oil bagscontribute to larger extent, while among the synthetic rubber, foot wares werethe most prominent material responsible for NBDSW pollution.Slaughter (2012) reported this researchincludes mapping and spatial analysis of the variables which contribute tolitter in the Dog River Watershed using ESRI’s ArcGIS software. The study areais of the Dog River Watershed, but delineated into the aforementionedsub-watersheds. Placing a litter trap which is a strategically placed floatingdevice designed to accumulate floating litter on Eslava Creek is an effort solutionto reduce the laborious.

        

x

Hi!
I'm Mary!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out