This paper is about a small country on the west coast of Africa called Liberia.It is a country built with the help of The American Colonization Society. I wasestablished to place freed blacks in the days of slavery in the United States inthe 1800s. The government was modeled after of the United Stats. Monrovia, thecapital and principal, port is named after a president of the united statesJames Monroe. This country has historical significance for african Americans.As Africa’s oldest republic, established by former black American slaves,Liberia played and important role as a model for African colones seekingindependence.
HISTORYLiberia’s tribal peoples migrated to the area between the 12th and 16thcenturies. The Portuguese arrived in 1461 and began a trade in ivory, pepper,and later in slaves. In 1820, the first colonists arrived.
Their successfulsettlement was named Monrovia in 1824. More colonists gradually arrived andestablished separate colonies. In 1847 the colonies united and Liberia becamethe first independent republic in black Africa.
The new nation faced many problems. Some of them were tribal wars, lowexports, and land claimed by other countries. Liberia was able to maintain itsindependence only with the help of the United States.
Following World War II,the modern port, airport, hospitals, hydroelectric station, and other projects,all financed by the United States, were opened. There has been frequentmilitary conflicts and civil wars. In August 1990, forces from several Africancountries entered Liberia to try and stop the bloody civil wars.
The fightingonly became worse and the Prospects of a negotiated settlement were dim.LAND AND RESOURCESLiberia’s straight sandy coast is 350 miles long. It is broken bylagoons and mangrove swamps. It gives way to a low rolling plain about 20 mileswide. Further inland, foothills ranging in height from 600 to 1000 feet highare found. They become mountains in the north and east. The highest point inthe country is Mt. Wutuvi which rises to 4,531 feet.
Land area of the countryis 43,000 square miles.Liberia’s rivers are short and flow parallel to one another from themountains to the ocean. The largest rivers are the St. Paul, St. John, andCavalla.Liberia’s tropical climate is hot and humid.
The usual temperatureranges from 60 degrees to 87 degrees. Annual rainfall, as much as 177 inches atthe coast, gradually decreases inland to 96 inches. The rainy season occursbetween May and October. A dusty winter wind blows during December.There are 90 different kind of usable wood in Liberia’s vast timberresources. Mineral resources include large deposits of iron ore, diamonds, andgold.The country is rich in wildlife. More than 100 species of mammals haveso for been identified.
There are fifteen species belonging to the cat family,among which the largest is the leopard. The number of leopards has beendecreasing rapidly along with the elephant and bush cow. Monkeys, chimpanzees,and antelopes swarm. two rare mammals found here are the manatee and the pygmyhippopotamus. In addition to mammals, there are more that 100 species of birds,including eagles, kites, and hawks.PEOPLELiberians of black American ancestry who migrated from North and SouthAmerica between 1820 and 1856 are known as Americo- Liberians. They live alongthe coast and make of up about 5 percent of the more that 2 million population.
The bulk population consist of native cultural groups. Each has its ownlanguage. There is also a large group of English speaking people. The largestnative group is the Kpelle which is 19% of the population. The Bassa groupmakes up 14% of the population. It is estimated that 18% of the people practicetraditional African religions. About 68 percent are Christians and about 14percent are Islamic. Liberia is officially Christian.
Almost half of the country’s city population lives in the capitol ofMonrovia, which is the largest city. The population of Monrovia was 425,000 in1984.Education was formerly provided by Christian missions but most schoolsare now government operated. Although education is free and required betweenthe ages of 6 and 16, less than half of the school-age children attend, partlybecause of a teacher shortage. The University of Liberia was founded in 1862.
It is located in the capitol city of Monrovia. ECONOMYMost of Liberia’s workers work in farming. It is the most importanteconomic activity for more than 68% of the people. They mostly grow what theyuse.
Rubber is a commercial crop grown on plantations which employ about halfof those who work for money. The first