Lab 1: BernoulliPrinciple ObjectiveThis experiment is aimed to check the validity ofBernoulli Theorem and applied to non-viscous fluid that is flowing throughcircular pipe of cross sectional area.

It is also intended to measure the totaland static heads for both converging and diverging tubes. LiteratureReviewBernoulli Theorem was formulated by Daniel Bernoulliin 1738. According to this theorem, for non-viscous flow, there is an increasein velocity of the fluid as the pressure is decrease due to decrease in thepotential energy of the fluid. This theorem is also a principle and directlycorrelates with the conservation of energy. The velocity increase as thepressure increase. This increase in the velocity causes dynamic head toincrease and this is reason why we obtain higher and lower total head forconvergent and divergent flows. Mathematically, Equation 1 Wherep is the pressure, is the density of the fluid, V is thevelocity, h is the elevation and g is the gravitational acceleration constant. There are many experiments and researches done onthis theorem.

Khadanga, ShaktiPrasanna, (193-197) presented their workthat gives an idea about the investigation of Bernoulli apparatus forunidirectional flow. Their apparatus comprises of two dimensional rectangulardivergent section duct. It was designed in such a way that there is a constanthead inlet and outlet. They have utilized 11 static tubes of manometer attachedto convergent duct.

The piezometer tubes are attached at an equal interval atgauges. They have concluded that the total head of the streamline remainedconstant through varying duct tube area. Ruqiong g Qin, and Chunyi Duan, (1-6) in their article of “Principle and application of Bernoulli Equation”. They haveexplained the working of designed agricultural sprayer machine as shown inFigure.1. The liquidtrapped inside the knapsack is dispersed into air by pushing the tube and airwas formed in the narrow tube opening. The narrow opening at A is the regionwhere the pressure is small and flow rate is high.

A vertical tube that isabove CB, this region has the pressure less than the vessel bottom and tubeabove this solution. As the cross section area of the nozzle converge, thisincreases flow and air from the environment pass through negative pressure.This gradient of pressure allows the liquid to get ejected through the nozzle.

Henry, S. (1958) demonstratedthe application of Bernoulli application through Venturi meter. This literaturesimulated the pipe framework through which the liquid passes through aconstricted rate. This is called Venturi throat. This is the region where fluidaccelerates and pressure diminished. This pressure difference for the rate offlow proves the validity of Bernoulli theorem.

Figure.2. shows the illustrationof typical Venturimeter.

W?cel, Daniel, Tadeusz Chmielniak, and Janusz Kotowicz (301-306) shows another application of Bernoulli theoremthrough Pitot tube. This tube was named after French scientist Pitot. Itcomprises of a tube that is bent perpendicularly as shown in Figure.3. Pointingthe tube directly to the flow stream. This measures the pressure differencethrough Pitot tube and measures the pressure of air flow. This gives anaccurate measurement of the velocity. Ansaldo, E.

J (1982)shows another application of Bernoulli equation. A siphon that is typically abent tube, used to transfer fluid from one vessel at higher level into anothervessel at lower level. The liquid is filled with the liquid in the tube toprovide flow medium as shown in Figure.4. By applying the Bernoulli theorem, wecan estimate the maximum height h associated with the bending of the tube.

Mathematically, Equation 2 Equation 3 MethodologyThe experimental setup was already arranged by the labinstructor. It was carried out onBernoulli Theorem Hydraulic Bench provided by. We have first level theapparatus and make sure that everything is working properly. Manometer wascarefully placed inside the water so that all the bubbles and air pockets canbe easily discharged.

The flow was adjusted through control valves. As we haveopened he valves the manometer gauge rises between highest and lowestconsecutive values. This was that point, we started to note down the readings.The volumetric rate was measured individually by filling volumetric flask in anaverage interval of time. The probe was then placed at a parallel position ofthe duct and the scale reading was then recorded for mathematical calculation.