Auto Tech – 435
Technical Article – Turbo chargers vs. Super chargers
Turbo charge or super charge? That is the question most people ask themselves when they are looking to run forced induction setup on their engines. Depending on the application you are looking to use a forced induction motor for, will ultimately determine which of the two setups you should use. First let’s look into what a turbocharger and a supercharger are what they do. Then we will look at what the advantages and disadvantages are of both applications.
What is a Turbo charger? Turbochargers are a component that is bolted on to the motor and is driven by the exhaust gases of the engine. Turbos compress the air flowing into the engine, thus allowing more fuel to be added. Exhaust flow of the motor spins a turbine inside the turbo, turning it into an air pump. Turbos allow more air and fuel to be burned inside the combustion chamber. They can allow up to 50% more horse power to be produced from the engine. A turbo can also increase an engine’s horsepower without increasing its weight. That will increase the power to weight ratio of the vehicle.
What is a Super charger? A supercharger is a component that is attached to the motor and is driven by a chain or a belt that is connected to the engines crankshaft. The belt or chain is connected to a pulley that is bolted to a drive gear. That drive gear turns the compressor gear. The compressor gear has a rotor. The purpose of the rotor is to draw in air. The air then gets compressed and is sent into the intake manifold. Superchargers compress air above atmospheric pressure. That allows more air to be forced into the motor. Superchargers can add up to 46% more horsepower and also up to 31% extra torque.
There are a few advantages to having a turbocharger. They can reduce emissions because they operate off of exhaust waste. So in turn, it basically recycles your exhaust gases. They are an affordable way to increase your engines top end power without having to build a new and bigger engine which would cost a lot of money to do. That would also increase the weight of the vehicle, resulting in slowing it down.
Although turbochargers have many great advantages they also have a few disadvantages.
They can significantly reduce your fuel economy. In addition to that putting a turbo charger on a car can be a bit of a challenge. They cost a bit of money and when you try to modify your engine to fit one it can often be a challenge to fit all of the tubing and wiring needed for it to operate properly. Smaller cars with less clearance can be an even bigger challenge to modify for fitment of a turbocharger and its components.
There are also advantages to having a supercharger. Superchargers can create power from lower end rpms because unlike a turbocharger, it does not require built up pressure from the exhaust system. It also does not have lag response from the throttle because it is driven directly from the crankshaft. The system is more reliable than a turbocharger because it is not under stress from heat like the turbo charger is.
Superchargers also have a few disadvantages as well. The system has some limitations so it may not reach the same amount of power as the turbocharger. The supercharger has to take some horse power away from the motor in order for it to operate. It also adds added strain to the motor, so the engine has to be strong enough to withstand the added strain produced by the supercharger. Superchargers also cost more to maintain and they require a higher octane gas to function properly and to avoid damage to the engine.