KISII UNIVERSITY FACULTYOF INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECNOLOGYDEPARTMENTOF COMPUTING SCIENCEPROPOSALBYALBERTOCHIENG OKWANGALAREGNO: IN16/20224/14PROGRAMME: SOFTWARE ENGINEERINGUNIT: SPECIAL TOPIC IN SOFTWARE ENGINEERINGUNITCODE: SOEN 414 TITLE:DIGITAL LEARNING THIS TERM PAPER IS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS OFTHE AWARD OF BACHELORS OF SCIENCE IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN KISIIUNIVERSITY < --Table of content -->Table of abbreviations E-learning- electroniclearningOER- openeducational resourcesDPL –Digital Programme Learning DECLARATIONI do hereby declare that this TermPaper is original and has not been published or submitted for any other degreeaward to any other University before. SIGN: …………………… DATE: ………………………Student: Albert Ochieng Okwangala 1.
0 CHAPTER1: INTRODUCTION Itis clear that technology is becoming an integral part of our everyday activityand that’s why you find it integrated in all aspects of our lives. From thehealth sector, economic sector, social sector, education sector etc. but doesthis technology impact as positively. Back then in memorial students used tolearn using paper and pencil while interacting with other students andteaches/lectures. This method of learning has seen my people becoming greatemployees in their line of profession and reaching greater heights in terms oftheir education levels. However, with the evolving technology in the educationsector new ways of learning have been introduced.
A good example is Digitallearning which I will be exploiting to analyze its advantages and disadvantages. Firstand for most we need to understand the definition of digital learning as it issometimes confused by e-learning. As per the Wikipedia, Digital learning is anytype of learning that is facilitated by technology or by institutionalpractices that makes effective use of technology.
It encompasses theapplication of a wide spectrum of practices including: blending and virtuallearning, adaptive learning, badging and gamification, blended learning,classroom technologies, e-textbooks, learning analytics, learning objects,personalized learning, online learning (or e-learning), open educationalresources(OERs), technology-enhanced teaching and learning, virtual reality etc.Sincethe mid-1990s, many education policy makers have promoted widespread access tothe Internet in schools. Overthe same period, access to the Internet has been expanding in locations outsideof school. One of the most common activities that youth perform online isschoolwork. According to a September 2001 study bythe Pew Internet & American Life Project:Nearlyevery online teen (94% of 12 to 17 year olds who report using the Internet) hasused the Internet for school research;71%used the Internet as the major source for their most recent school project;58%have used a Web site set up by school or a class;34%have downloaded a study aid; and17%have created a Web page for a school project.Digitallearning is meant to enhance the learning experience rather than replacetraditional methods all together but are the digital tools used in e-learningmaking us more or less productive at school and work? This will be one of myresearch point apart from also exploring how digital learning has or is goingto change schools and the education sector. 2.0 CHAPTER2: METHODOLOGY 2.
1Research designInorder to get a quantitative and a qualitative research I have used journal andonline materials as a meanings of carrying out my research in an attempt ofgetting a comprehensive statistics on how digital learning is impacting our wayof studies as well as the education sector.Longtime ago; like 15years or so, smart phones were beginning to coverage, doingaway with the need of paper addresses and enabling new connectivity. Digital learning today is wheresmartphones were a decade ago but it’s taking hold; at least that iswhat it looks like in most third world countries as compared to most firstworld countries. As a study case I will be evaluating the impacts of digital learningin United States as well as in Kenya.In the United States statics show that thirty states offer fully onlineschools that grant degrees. There are approximately 315,000 students enrolledin this type of digital school.
This represents about half of one percent ofthe overall primary and secondary school population. But, the number ofstudents enrolled in online schools is growing rapidly. This past school yearenrollment increased by 6.2 percent. In addition, virtual schools, whichprovide supplementary course offerings, have about 740,000 course enrollmentsin the 2015-2016 school year. Even though digital schools have many enrollmentin the state, some states have put in polies to help the growth of digitallearning, for example North Carolina created the position of “chief academicand digital learning officer” to administer the state’s online learningprograms. However, some other states that have inhibit the growth of digitallearning. For example, currently, twenty states have laws banning theenrollment of students in digital schools.
Concentrating on the states thatoffer and support digital learning, a report done by Gerard L. Danford showsthat The U.S. is theundisputed leader in digital (online and distance) higher education. 5.8million Students are taking at least one digital course, and some 2.
7 millionhigher education students are studying exclusively via digital. Furthermore,growth in digital learning continues, even as higher education enrollmentsoverall are declining 1, 2, 3. What can European higher educationinstitutions learn from this U.S.
experience? In this research the authorfocuses on; the drivers of growth in digital learning, impact on learningoutcomes, and institutional costs.InKenya the case is different as that of the United States. A program known as the Digital Learningprogramme (DLP) was initiated by the Government of Kenya in 2013. The programmewas put in place to integrate the use of technologies in learning. Thisprogramme was put in place to deliver 1.
2 million devices between 2013 and 2016but up to date only 11500 devices have been delivered in lower primary schoolsbut the government is working towards expanding the DLP to cover up to thesecondary stage of its education sector. However, apart from the DPL making aneffort to introduce and implement the digital learning, other organizations andinstitutions are on the verge of fully adopting digital learning practices. Agood example is The Kenyatta University School of Virtual and Open Learning thatseeks to provide learning opportunities to students who are unable to take upfull-time on-campus programmes.2.2 Case Study Thereis a clear distinction on the comparison between the two countries above asdigital learning has already been implemented In the United states but in Kenyait is facings its genesis. For this reason I will be evaluating the UnitedState digital learning evolution to get a clear outcome on whether the digitallearning experience has made more or less productivity at school and work andits impact to the education sector.Aresearch done in USA shows that the impact made in the education sector canonly be measured using the following variable which include:ü Availability of ICTü Usage of ICTü Knowledge of ICTü Effectiveness of ICTThisvariable was researched upon by asking different universities in differentstates on the following questions as per the variable: Availability of ICT ü Isthere any available IT equipment’s in the university?ü Isinternet connectivity available any time you are in the computer laboratory?ü Isthere any available multimedia device when you are in the lecture rooms?ü Howmany digital libraries are there in that state? Usability of ICTThisvariable exploits and tries to find out how the students can use newly settechnologies in studying.
The following questions were used to evaluate thisvariable ü Isthere any usage of latest technology in the university?ü Howfrequent do students use multimedia devices in lecture rather than black/whiteboards?ü Howfrequently do students use the internet in researching about their assignmentsand school projects rather than books in the library?Knowledge of ICTThisvariable help us understand how knowledgeable are students regarding the use ofICT and how has it been beneficial to them.ü Howdoes ICT functions provide information to operate different multimedia devices?ü How isthe ICT knowledge helpful at a professional level?Effectiveness of ICTTo evaluate howthe effectiveness of ICT has impacted the education sector. The followingquestions were asked.ü Doesthe ICT knowledge improve the learning skills of students?ü Howhas the intent enhanced your way of learning and researching?ü Howhas ICT enhanced education planning?2.3Data AnalysisThemajor finding of this research establish that availability and usage of ICT isvery crucial to enhance the educational sector and efficiency of students. Thisshows that the availability of ICT is beneficial to the students as it enhancestheir learning experience and helps them prepare a complete and comprehensivereport in their assignments and projects. This findings imply that the more theusage and availability of ICT in a university, the more efficient student willbe in terms of their profession. All the heads of universities were inagreement that vast knowledge provided by ICT is helpful in enhancing theefficiency level in the education sector.
CHAPTER 3: LITRATURE REVIEW Thisis the era of technology, hence, it is being used in every sector of our livesand Educations is no exception. Digital learning is not exactly a new concept,but is also neither a very old one. It is basically any type of learning thatis facilitated by technology or by institutional practices that makes effectiveuse of technology.
It is a deeper learning experience as the student makes theeffort of understanding the concepts himself.Ina particular private school in Saudi Arabia, “an eight-year-old girl calculatesmultiplication tables using an interactive program that feeds her increasinglydifficult questions as she demonstrates higher levels of achievement. Acrossthe hall, a ten-year-old boy prepares a short video explaining how automobileair bags work.” With such a rich environment of technological devices suchas laptops and tablets, it’s hard to believe that just one year earlier thesestudents relied solely on pencils, textbooks, and teacher lectures.Ashocking research done by world economic forum shows that 65% of the childrenentering primary schools will find themselves in occupation that today don’texist.
It also shows that by 2020 and estimation of about 1.5 million digitizedjob across the globe. This means that truly technology is playing in everyaspect of our lives and it is here to stay. However, as beneficial as it is, italso comes with some cons. A number of things makes its implementation reallyhard such as its expensiveness, but apart from that social media applicationshave really caused a major distraction to our young associates.
Social media ismostly used as a tool to size up one’s own accomplishments against others whichtends to have a lot of negative impacts to the young boys and girls. Thisshould not be the case, social media is an advantageous platform where one canlearn and share educational content apart from extending your social status.These Social and recreational media should mostly be used as a site of learning.Apart from that it has also led to the Lack of face-to-face interactions withthe teachers and classmates, of which in my opinion is not a healthy move.
CHAPTER 4: FINDINGS AND OBSERVATIONS 4.1 Digital learningimpacts on the student. Thefollowing are some of the positive impacts on the student I have compiled from different online materials:ü Informal patterns of learning: Digitallearning helps a student to learn in a style that best suits him. For example,if he is unable to understand through theory, he can use interactive programsto get a better understanding of the concept.ü Learning anytime and anyplace: Thanksto the internet and the modern technology, students can now access studymaterial on their laptops at any time and from anywhere. As a result, thestudents are not restricted to learning only during the school hours.ü Performance Improvements: Researchhas shown that students who have access to digital learning and who make gooduse of it, tend to perform well in their papers.
ü Improving concepts: Blendedlearning tools are very helpful in making the concept understandable. Studentsare better able to comprehend problems.ü Improves creativity: Notall students are able to perform well by solely relying on course books. Forthem, it is important to utilize their creative side. For this matter, digitallearning is the best option.ü Increased Interactivity: Itis true that interactive programs and strategies are engaging for students.They are able to develop an interest in them, helping them to learn voluntarilyand more effectively.
Accordingto Jim Shelton, deputy secretary atthe US Department of Education, the benefits of adding digital educationaltools to curriculum extend far beyond the classroom. In an interview doneby The Aspen Institute Jim Shelton offered a deeper dive into the advantages ofintroducing digital learning. He said that “When students have access topowerful mobile devices and digital resources that are continually updated,they realize that learning doesn’t stop with the last bell of the school day.They become accustomed to learning being an integral part of all aspects oftheir lives, which establishes ongoing learning habits lasting long aftergraduation. In addition, technology empowers students to take control oftheir own learning.
By providing students with tools to engage and create, aswell as monitor their own progress, students are put in the driver’s seat andbecome owners of the learning process.” Other than having a wide load ofbenefits the digital learning platform contains some negative impacts on the student as well. ü It has many Distractions? DigitalLearning tools can sometime be distraction to students.
Many students end upspending a lot of time in these tools and forget about their lecture books andclasswork’s hence the end up wasting a lot of their time. Some of these toolsare laptops connected to internet which becomes a problem to students that areeasy distracted by the social media.ü It’s expensive to implement digitallearning: Buying digital learning tools e.g. Laptops, smartphones, etc. are quite expensive and therefore cannot be afforded by everyone.More so by students leaving in third world countries.
ü Missing out on the social aspect oflearning: Lack of face-to-face interactions with the teachersand classmates is not a healthy move. It is important to remember that not alleducation can be received through digital learning. Class lectures anddiscussions are important learning processes. The bond of a teacher and pupilis very important for a positive learning experience. 4.2 Digital learning impacts on the Education sector Theuse of information and communication technologies in the education sector playsan important role in providing innovation to the whole learning process in theUnited States.
Thepotential of ICT impact in education is clear but only when implementedcorrectly, laptops and computers for example, can allow students to learn attheir own speed and help children develop important digital skills and computerknow-how. But some huge challenges, such as high costs of these devices,increased burdens on parents and teachers. However, many higher educationinstitution have taken up the challenge and are putting in their best inimplement digital learning because of the following reasons:ü Withmany more new students expected to enroll in universities in the near future, digitizationallows higher education to be more scalable and more affordable.ü ManyUniversities and colleges are not only used by students who have graduated fromsecondary education but also by full-timeworkers, single parents, and career changers—convenient access to highereducation at various stages of their lives hence bring into account thefunctionality of flexibility.ü Digitaleducation is being enhanced by new features in mobile devices, cloud deliverysystems, video streaming and other broadband-intensive applications, andlearning management systems.ü Today’sstudents are digital natives who are used to getting want they want at the timeand location they want to get it.
“Isdistraction just another meaningless message to keep you from paying attentionto the issues that are important?” Oneof the observations I’ve made in this research is that the only tool that makesmany students and even employees in many organizations to be lazy and lackinnovation in whatever they are doing is social media. Below I have outlinedthe negative impacts of social media. 4.3 I Negative Impacts of social media to studentsand employees1.Many students depend solely on the accessibility of information on social mediaspecifically and different websites in general to provide solutions forwhichever situations they may be facing, may it be assignments, projects, lifehacks etc. This means that their focus in learning and retaining information isreduced significantly.2.
Many students and employees tend to attempt to multi-task, visiting socialmedia sites while studying or working, their ability to concentrate on the taskat hand is significantly reduced by the distractions that are brought about byYouTube, Facebook or Twitter. At the end this reduces their performance inschool and work.3.
The more time students and employees spend on social sites, the more theybecame antisocial in terms of interacting with other people physically.Students who spend a great deal of time on social networking are less able toeffectively communicate in person.4.The fast growth of social media, and the pace at which information ispublished, has created a relaxing attitude towards proper spelling and properconstruction of sentences. This has significantly made many students lazy inwriting, as they depend so much on computer with spell checking features.
5.The anonymity brought by the internet has made many student careless inpublishing comments or status on these social network sites which bringsnegative consequences. For example some of the employers tend to research abouta particular interviewee through his social media accounts before giving them ajob. CHAPTER 5: RECOMMENDATIONS Itis with no doubt that technology is having a massive impact in the educationsector and has become an essential and effective tool for the success of manystudents. But this is only possible when implemented correctly. One of the mosteffective way of implementing digital learning is by the use of a concept knownas blended learning introduce by education Technology Company. Blended learningis the use of technology to combine in-class and out-class learning by infusingtradition learning with technology. Blended learning has redefined the role ofteaches and lecture by offering them a more flexible option depending on thecapabilities of the student.
This intern enables teaches to focus on makingstudents understand a particular concept rather than worring with mode of deliveringthe concept itself.Theblended method learning enables college staff with the ability to be able to comeup with flipped activities which learners can complete pre- and post-lesson togain understanding of topics. These is very advantageous as it allows the timein traditional classrooms to focus on extending the students’ knowledge and to enablethem in reaching the advanced levels of learning such as analyzing andevaluating.Restrictingthe access of social media sites in multimedia devices such as computers andlaptops in offices and schools is an effective way of ensuring that employeesand students are not distracted. Hence, their concentration is fully in whatthey are doing.
Governmentsand companies from private sectors from different countries should try as muchas possible to fund and put in place polies that enable and help in theimplementation of digital learning in schools so as to improve the educationsector. The government should put in place measure to ensure the availabilityand usability of ICT infrastructures is accessible to students so as tofacilitate digital learning. REFERENCES https://www.brookings.edu/blog/techtank/2014/12/15/how-big-is-digital-education-in-the-united-states-an-end-of-year-review/DIGITALLEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION ‘Lessons From America’ Gerard L. Danford, Haaga-Helia University of Applied Sciences,Finland pdfhttp://icta.go.ke/digital-literacy-programme-progress-may-2016/http://www.
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Wasif Nisar, Ehsan Ullah Munir andShafqat Ali shadhttps://www.bcg.com/industries/education/old-school-methods-elearning.aspxhttp://edtechnology.co.uk/Article/the-impact-of-blended-learninghttps://www.weforum.org/agenda/2017/05/science-of-learning/http://www.pewinternet.org/2002/08/14/part-i-background-and-introduction/http://socialnetworking.lovetoknow.com/Negative_Impact_of_Social_Networking_Siteshttp://www.edudemic.com/social-media-education/